“Want fried glucose in your brain?”

Do you want to serve yourself up some” fried glucose” in your brain? Just use your cell phone for 50 minutes at a time while holding it against your ear. The brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the phone’s antenna is effected.

What is glucose?   Glucose, blood sugar, the major energy source for brain energy enters the brain from the arterial side and is absorbed by astrocytes, which then transform glucose to lactate. Lactate exchange occurs with neurons, which oxidize it to CO2 and H2O drained by the venous blood. The increase in lactate levels and the uncoupling between oxygen consumption and glucose uptake revealed by PET at the early stages of activation, cause lactate fluxes between astrocytes and neurons.

When you hold a cell phone to your ear in an on position for 50 minutes or more it changes the way glucose moves through the brain cells. The area begins to heat only after 5 minutes and changes the biochemistry as proven by PET scans.
During cell phone use in the on and then off positions and found that although whole-brain metabolism was not affected, metabolism was increased in the orbitofrontal cortex and the temporal pole areas of the brain while the cell phone was on, areas that are close to where phone’s antenna meets the head.(brain energy metabolism).
  
Blood-borne glucose is the brain’s fuel and is needed to supply the moment-to-moment changes in energy demand during information processing, the local rates of blood flow and glucose utilization are closely linked to the activities of brain cells. Because the blood-brain barrier restricts transfer of material from blood into brain, many compounds that are readily metabolized by cultured brain cells or brain slices, including lactate, cannot be transported into adult brain in vivo in sufficient quantities to compensate for inadequate levels of glucose and support the brain’s high and continuous energy demand.
Nora D. Volkow, MD, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse in Bethesda, Maryland Hands-free devices or speaker-phone mode should be used to avoid direct contact of the telephone with the head. Previous work suggests that if the phone is a foot or more away it is very unlikely to have any effects, she said.
Caution may be particularly necessary for children and adolescents whose neural tissue is still developing, Dr. Volkow noted.

Other studies have shown that the effects of radio frequency-modulated electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), particularly carcinogenic effects show some relationship between cell phones and the risk of brain tumor development.
Dr. Volkow’s studies over the past 15 years have shown:

  •  the the brain’s function is affected by brain imaging technologies, including PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) these magnetic fields affect brain glucose metabolism,
  •  static magnetic field of a 4-T MRI does not affect brain metabolism
  • when magnetic fields were changed rapidly, which produces electrical currents, there was a significant increase in glucose metabolism in the brain. They wondered whether the RF-EMFs produced by cell phones might do the same thing.

 metabolism in the regions closest to the antenna, the orbitofrontal cortex (the thinking and decision-making area of the  brain) and temporal pole (part of the temporal lobe). The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. was significantly higher when the cell phone was on.
Henry Lai, PhD, from the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD, from the Department of Oncology at University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden, point out that this is the first investigation in humans of glucose metabolism in the brain after cell phone use.
”The results by Volkow et al add to the concern about possible acute and long-term health effects of radiofrequency emissions from wireless phones, including both mobile and cordless desktop phones,” they write.
”Although the biological significance, if any, of increased glucose metabolism from acute cell phone exposure is unknown, the results warrant further investigation.
“
The effects are unlikely to be mediated by the substantial increase in temperature seen with cell phones given the activation was “quite distant” from where the cell phone made contact, they speculate. Further, since the subjects were only listening rather than talking on the phone, “the effect observed could thus potentially be more pronounced in normal-use situations.”
Another major concern is the effects of unmonitored cell phone towers that spider web across the US each one producing many thousands of times higher EMF’s radiation than a cell phone.
 Resources
Excerpts courtesy of medscape.com   http://goo.gl/jIxeuhttp
Excerpts courtesy of  ajpregu.physiology.org  http://goo.gl/hEP9o
Excerpts courtesy of  acnp.org   http://goo.gl/VHvfP

Image  courtesy of quickblogcast.com  http://goo.gl/ZKjwv

“Last antibiotic standing-losing to Gonorrhea”

The last line of defense for treating gonorrhea is crumbling, according to an article published in the July 8 issue of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Cephalosporins, the last class of antibiotics that treat gonorrhea, seem to be losing their effectiveness as the pathogen quickly evolves to bypass the antibiotic.

After 10 years of study, the CDC researchers studying gonorrhea cultures show that higher doses of antibiotics are needed to inhibit growth in the lab The gonorrhea samples collected through the CDC’s Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project from male patients in 30 US cities. Close to 6000 isolates were collected each year.

A pattern of emerging resistance is developing says Gail Bolan, MD, director of CDC’s Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention.

Although no treatment failures have been reported yet in the United States, there have been reports from Asia and other parts of the world suggesting gonorrhea’s declining susceptibility to cephalosporin, said Hillard Weinstock, MD, MPH, from the same division.

At an Impasse

Historically, since the 1930s and 1940s, antibiotics have treated gonorrhea. However, during the past 40 years, the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to several drugs, including sulfonamides, penicillin, and tetracycline. As recently as 2007, the CDC stopped recommending any fluoroquinolone regimens to treat gonorrhea, leaving cephalosporins the last class of antibiotics standing.

The CDC is down to recommending a cephalosporin (cefixime or ceftriaxone), along with a macrolide antibiotic, preferably azithromycin. Ceftriaxone is the most effective cephalosporin for treating gonorrhea, and azithromycin is better than doxycycline for dual therapy with ceftriaxone, the CDC notes. (Dosing recommendations are available in the article.)

Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Among serious health consequences, it can lead to infertility in women and increase a person’s risk of acquiring HIV.

Given the possibility of rising resistance, clinicians should be on the lookout for treatment failures, Dr. Bolan said, which will show up as persistent symptoms or a positive follow-up test despite treatment with CDC-recommended antibiotics. Clinicians should also obtain specimens for gonococcal culture from patients whose treatments may have failed. “You need to find labs that are still doing the [gonococcal] culture,” she said.

CDC Recommendations

The CDC recommends that individual providers:

  • promptly treat all patients diagnosed with gonorrhea according to CDC Treatment Guidelines,
  • obtain cultures to test for decreased susceptibility from any patients with suspected or documented gonorrhea treatment failures, and
  • report any suspected treatment failure to local or state public health officials within 24 hours, helping to ensure that any future resistance is recognized early.

Clinicians who care for patients with gonorrhea, especially men who have sex with men in the western United States, should consider having patients return 1 week after treatment for test-of-cure with culture, preferably, or with nucleic acid amplification tests. The CDC report notes that the pattern of cephalosporin susceptibility in the West and among men who have sex with men during 2009 to 2010 resembles the drop in effectiveness observed earlier when a fluoroquinolone-resistant N gonorrhoeae emerged in the United States.

Although Dr. Bolan said she was not aware of any new drug development in the pipeline, the CDC and the National Institutes of Health are running a treatment trial on existing drugs: gentamicin, azithromycin, and gemifloxacin. The trial is expected to yield results by late 2012, said Bob Kirkcaldy, MD, MPH, from the CDC’s Office of Workforce Development and Division of STD Prevention.

“We really do want to have more treatment trials so that we have more treatment options down the pike,” Dr. Bolan said.

However, the development of new antibiotics is unlikely, according to Brad Spellberg, MD, author of Rising Plague: The Global Threat from Deadly Bacteria and Our Dwindling Arsenal to Fight Them. A fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America who sits on its antimicrobial availability taskforce, Dr. Spellberg characterized the next several decades as “a very barren period of time” in terms of antibiotics development.

Dr. Spellberg offered 3 reasons to explain his outlook: First, there is a significant scientific challenge. After 60 years of antibiotic discovery, all the low-hanging fruit has been plucked, and developing new antibiotics would be difficult. Second, pharmaceutical companies have found that they make much more money off drugs that target chronic illnesses, not ones consumers will take for only 14 days. Third, “nobody even knows how to do drug trials for antibiotics anymore,” Dr. Spellberg said, and the US Food and Drug Administration’s requirements, he explained, are unclear, infeasible, and/or unreasonable.

“There’s never going to be an endgame to this,” he said. Industry, he predicted, will exit antibiotic development. “It doesn’t make enough money for them, and the regulatory morass exacerbates the problem.” Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011:60;873-877. Full text

What are the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea?

Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, some men have signs or symptoms that appear one to fourteen days after infection. Symptoms and signs include a burning sensation when urinating, or a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles.

In women, the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild, but most women who are infected have no symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms.

Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women may include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding, or painful bowel movements. Rectal infection also may cause no symptoms. Infections in the throat may cause a sore throat, but usually causes no symptoms.

What are the complications of gonorrhea?

Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men.

In women, gonorrhea is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). About 750,000 women each year in the United States develop PID. The symptoms may be quite mild or can be very severe and can include abdominal pain and fever. PID can lead to internal abscesses (pus-filled “pockets” that are hard to cure) and long-lasting, chronic pelvic pain. PID can damage the fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility or increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube.

In men, gonorrhea can cause epididymitis, a painful condition of the ducts attached to the testicles that may lead to infertility if left untreated.

Gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints. This condition can be life threatening. In addition, people with gonorrhea can more easily contract HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV-infected people with gonorrhea can transmit HIV more easily to someone else than if they did not have gonorrhea.

How does gonorrhea affect a pregnant woman and her baby?

If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea, she may give the infection to her baby as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery. This can cause blindness, joint infection, or a life-threatening blood infection in the baby. Treatment of gonorrhea as soon as it is detected in pregnant women will reduce the risk of these complications. Pregnant women should consult a health care provider for appropriate examination, testing, and treatment, as necessary.

Alternative Health Care

Natural medicine’s approach to treating all diseases is to look at the whole person and provide treatment that is specific to that person. Through individualized care in classical homeopathy, nutrition, herbal,oriental and Ayurvedic medicines and stress management care, possibly coupled with tradition drugs a person has the best opportunity to heal, because the body is not simply overwhelmed with a chemical antibiotic in hopes of repeatedly and blindly trying to drive the invader out of the body. Overwhelming the delicate systems of the body with chemicals only surpresses the symptoms of the disease and creates deeper pathology. (For more information-Mary Wolken-editor CMA)

Resources

Excerpts courtesy of  http://goo.gl/D6iqt

‘Vitamin D and diabetes” http://wp.me/p13RKZ-qY

Researchers working at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, under the direction of Professor Anastassios Pittas  reported that 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D, given for 12 weeks, significantly improved pancreatic function in mildly overweight adults with pre-diabetes. Unfortunately, the lead author, Dr. Joanna Mitri, did not comment on the low dose of vitamin D they used, 2,000 IU/day, which only increased vitamin D levels from 24 to 30 ng/ml. Nor, in spite of it being a randomized controlled trial, did the authors make any new clinical recommendations for the people who paid for their study, the citizens of the United States.

They found that pancreatic function increased by 300 in the vitamin D group, but fell by 126 in the placebo group.

Joanna Mitri, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Frank B Hu, and Anastassios G Pittas.  Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic b cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial. AJCN. First published ahead of print June 29, 2011 as doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.011684.

In the end, they studied 22 volunteers in the vitamin D group and 22 in the placebo group. However, to give you an idea of what a feat this study was, how difficult it was to get enough subjects, they started with 911 subjects yet ended up randomizing only 44 into the vitamin D study. They did a parallel calcium study with 45 subjects, which found calcium had no benefit on pancreatic function.

The same senior author, Professor Anastassios Pittas, recently announced the results of a much larger epidemiological study that showed for every 5 ng/mL increase in vitamin D levels, the risk of developing diabetes dropped by 8%.  However, he was quick to warn that such epidemiological studies should not change clinical recommendations, only randomized controlled trials can do that. Then, when he oversees just such a randomized trial, not a word of clinical advice, only the ever-present request for more research money from the citizens of this country.

http://diabetes.webmd.com/news/20110628/study-vitamin-d-may-cut-risk-of-diabetes

Of course the Food and Nutrition Board will say they never said levels greater than 20 ng/ml had no added benefits, only that no good evidence existed for such a benefit at the time they issued their report. Actually, if you exclude the science of epidemiology, that is still a false statement. The point is that history will record that someone was wrong.  Maybe it will be me and the Vitamin D Council’s recommendation, going into its fifth year, that adults should take at least 5,000 IU per day.  Or maybe it will be Professor A. Catharine Ross, of Penn­sylvania State University, the chairwoman of the recent FNB that concluded 600 IU/day is the Recommended Daily Allowance, all adults need.  Looking at the study published today, it is clear that 600 IU/day would not have resulted in a significant improvement in pancreatic function.

I predict that after most of the randomized controlled trials are out – in another ten years – the FNB will meet again and say “whoops,” it should have been 5,000 IU/day all along. However, by then the premature death count will be in the millions.

For a list of foods highest in vitamin D click here.

Reprinted with permission
John Cannell, MD
Vitamin D Council
1241 Johnson Road, #134
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401
Image courtesy of  abcnews

“Brain tumors up in cell phone users under 20”

 

Cell and cordless phone radiation and cell towers have been implicated as a factor in the demise of the bee and some bird populations now Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlson and Kjell Hansson Mild latest research has found another link between use of mobile and cordless phones and malignant brain tumours.

This new study has been published in the International Journal of Oncology. They concluded that there was a significantly increased risk for glioma from the long-term use of a mobile or cordless phone.

The risk worst for early mega users

The 3 potentially deadly sins for excessive cell users:

  • began using a cell/ cordless phone before you were 20 years old
  • using it constantly – too many hours,
  • carrying it on your body
  • listening with the phone directly on your ear

With first use before the age of 20 – in this group there was almost 5 times the risk after 10 years cordless/cell phone use.

Pooled analysis was performed of two case-control studies on patients with malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 and matched controls alive at the time of study and one case-control study on deceased patients and controls diagnosed during the same time period. Cases and controls or relatives to deceased subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Replies were obtained for 1,251 (85%) cases and 2,438 (84%) controls.

Highest overall risk was found for the most common type of glioma, astrocytoma. People who had used a wireless phone for more than ten years and begun its use before the age of 20 had increased risks of 95%.

Began your excessive use of the cordless/ cell phone after age 20?

If you began an excessive unprotected use of the mobile phone and your older the increased risk was between 1.3-fold and 1.5-fold if they had used any type of wireless phone for more than ten years.

Please teach our children that mobile/cell phone  use holds a danger to their long-term health and well-being and to use their mobile phones for essential calls only.

Text or use air-tube hands free headsets with a devise attached to protect them from some of the radiation from the phone.  Remember even in off  mode the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMFs.) is reduced, but not eliminated.  All devises with wiring have energy fields that give off EMFs.

Encourage the telecom industry to find ways to protect our health not bury us early from the radiation from mobile devises and cell phone towers.


Excerpts courtesy of   http://bit.ly/jhIZop

Image courtesy of   http://bit.ly/jcDG0r

“Loosening the bond of coke addiction”

A new cocaine vaccine is being tested in clinical trials. It block dopamine-transport receptors and the “high” it causes. “high.”
The vaccine consists of molecules of cocaine covalently bonded to a large carrier protein, a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. The cholera subunit is harmless without the other part of the normal virulent cholera A subunit.
This carrier was chosen because that a cholera subunit vaccine has been administered to millions of people without any adverse effects,

Since Americans are rarely exposed to or even vaccinated against cholera, their immune defense system will probably launch a strong defense against this foreignthis protein and the attached cocaine molecule.

The carrier choice was dictated by the knowledge that a cholera vaccine made from this subunit has been administered to millions of people without any adverse effects, and by the fact that Americans are rarely exposed to or vaccinated against cholera, so most would likely mount a new and robust immune response to this protein and the attached cocaine molecule.

After intramuscular injection, the vaccine enters the bloodstream and triggers plasma cells to produce antibodies to the cocaine molecule as a component of the immunogenic cholera protein. This creates an army of antibodies that can latch onto free cocaine molecules in the bloodstream and, because they are too bulky to fit through tight junctions in blood vessels, prevent the drug from leaving the circulatory system and entering tissues and organs.

Since tiny cocaine molecules that are now bound to big antibodies can no longer cross the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where they would ordinarily block dopamine-transport receptors and cause the buildup of dopamine that users perceive as a “high.” Cocaine that is kept from reaching its “target” in the brain is prevented from triggering reward sensations. With continued, regular booster vaccinations, necessary because the antibody titer declines steeply about 3 months after reaching peak levels, the bonds of addiction may be loosened, giving addicts a stab at kicking their habit altogether.

Resources
Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/iP62jc

Image courtesy of  http://bit.ly/lQAu3w

“Pesticides and Parkinson’s disease”

Researchers at UCLA announced they had discovered a linked Parkinson’s disease to two chemicals commonly sprayed on crops to fight pests.
For farmers who constantly work with pesticides and for people living near where farm fields the risk for Parkinson’s disease increased by 75 percent. The three culprits are fungicide maneb, the herbicide paraquat and pesticide, ziram.

Further study indicated that individuals working in building near the fields like in school teachers, fire fighters, office workers or clerks risk from secondary (ambient) exposure is 80 per cent.
There is strong evidence in humans that the combination of the three chemicals confers a greater risk of Parkinson’s than exposure to the individual chemicals alone. Because these pesticides affect different mechanisms leading to cell death, they may act together to increase the risk of developing the disorder: Those exposed to all three experienced the greatest increase in risk.

Scientists knew that in animal models and cell cultures, such pesticides trigger a neurodegenerative process that leads to Parkinson’s, a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs motor skills, speech and other functions and for which there is no cure.
The disease has been reported to occur at high rates among farmers and in rural populations, contributing to the hypothesis that agricultural pesticides may be partially responsible.

Exposure to these toxic chemicals may have occurred years before the onset of motor symptoms, when a diagnosis of Parkinson’s is made.

Avoid pesticide use.

Ziram synuclein accumulated in dopamine neurons, selectively killing them. When it was given systemically to rodents, it reproduced many of the features of Parkinson’s disease.
Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/jdN63I

“Afraid of big bad wolf -diet soda?”

Research results reported at the American Stroke Association International Stroke Conference in Los Angeles

People who drank diet soda daily had a 61 percent increased risk of cardiovascular events compared to those who drank no soda, even when accounting for smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and calories consumed per day.”This study suggests that diet soda is not an optimal substitute for sugar-sweetened beverages, and may be associated with a greater risk of stroke,” Hannah Gardener of the University of Miami and her colleagues reported at the conference.

The risk persisted after controlling for metabolic syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, and cardiac disease history.

The researchers looked at more than 2500 people from the multi-ethnic Northern Manhattan Study. Participants were asked to report how much and what kind of soda they drank.

During an average follow-up of 9.3 years, 559 vascular events occurred, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

The researchers also observed a marginally significant increased risk for vascular events among those who consumed diet soda daily and regular soda once or more a month (adjusted relative risk, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 – 3.16).

As reported by Medscape Medical News, previous studies have suggested a link between diet soda consumption and the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

This is the first time diet drinks have been associated with vascular events.

 

Resources

Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/ljqG1n

Excerpts courtesy of  http://abcn.ws/k8GXzK

Image courtesy of   http://bit.ly/lcNTYU

 


 

“Mushrooms say oil spills be gone!”

Researcher Paul Stamets says mushrooms can eat oil spills and rid the world of toxins.

For more than a decade, mycologist, inventor and researchers Paul Stamets has known

that mushrooms eat oil. Now he has to learn how to do it on a larger scale and get the US government’s blessing.

After the Deep Water Horizon explosions last year, the EPA contacted him several times to request a proposal. They wanted to understand how mycoremediation—the reduction of toxic compounds into harmless ones by fungi—could work as a component of their cleanup strategy for the spill.

Stamets calls fungi the “interface organisms between life and death” because they specialize in breaking indigestible substances down into smaller particles that other living things can use as nutrients.

In fact, polishing the public image of fungus may be more important for Stamets than any decision to bring mushrooms to the Gulf spill. This is because he sees human partnership with fungi as essential to the broader project of creating a sustainable society. Like most other environmentalists, Stamets believes our society is hurting the earth and that the consequences of this damage will be severe. But he differs from the others in his conviction that fungi are the key to repairing that damage, healing the planet and accepting decay as part of nature as well.

Stamets calls fungi the “interface organisms between life and death” because their mic specialize in breaking indigestible substances down into smaller particles that other living things can use as nutrients. It is this ability to digest complex organic compounds that makes fungi so promising for cleaning up oil.

 

Stamets first tested the fungal appetite for oil in 1997, when he teamed up with researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide fungi for several lab-based experiments. The team selected mycelial strains and set them loose on diesel-contaminated soil.

After eight weeks, they found that the fungi had removed 97 percent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—heavy chemicals within oil that other forms of remediation had consistently failed to break down.

The next year Washington State Department of Transportation joined with Stamets and the Battelle Marine Science Laboratory to research the most effective bio-safenmethods for cleaning up a maintenance yard contaminated with diesel fuel. Workers scooped piles of the toxic soil onto tarps, and each of several piles were inoculated with, either with a form of oil-eating bacteria or with Stamets’  oyster-mushroom mycelia and wood chips mix.

There were also several control patches of soil.

Results showed that his patches were teeming with huge oyster mushrooms feasting happily on the diesel compounds while destroying more than 95 percent of the PAHs and the mushrooms were also free of any petroleum products. The control and the bacteria patches, were dead, dark, and stinky and the diesel compounds remained.

Because the contamination in the soil patches was very uneven,  it was difficult to measure the precise concentration of contaminants both before and after remediation. However, researchers at the Department of Transportation eventually declared the fungi-cleansed soil pure enough to use for landscaping purposes along the highways of Washington. And in the years since, Stamets’s findings have been replicated by many other researchers, and further study has shown that various types of fungi are able to partially or fully detoxify oil and pesticides.  T^he fungi have also been successful at breaking down depleted uranium from anti-tank shells by allowing it to bond with phosphates to form a more stable mineral.

Since the Deepwater Horizon spill in April 2010, Stamets has been testing his oyster mushrooms for tolerance to salt water and sun in preparation for a gig off the coast of Texas or Louisiana. So far, he’s managed to isolate a strain that can tolerate the salinity of Puget Sound, which is only slightly less than that of the Gulf. And he’s found ways to float the mushrooms cheaply on hemp “mycobooms” filled with straw and mycelia from which the mushrooms can metabolize oil on the surface of the sea.

Stamets has discovered is that the enzymes and acids that mycelium produces to decompose this debris are superb at breaking apart hydrocarbons – the base structure common to many pollutants. So, for instance, when diesel oil-contaminated soil is inoculated with strains of oyster mycelia, the soil loses its toxicity in just eight weeks

Creative solutions under pressure

Stamets says this new research is “very cool and unlikely to have been discovered if it were not for this disaster.” He believes it will be used in the near future and has applied for a provisional patent to prevent oil companies from stealing the research.

(Most likely the oil companies would not want to spend their profits on solutions, but maybe you could try using mushrooms to clean up any small oil soil caused by your car  or truck..- Editor’s note)

Stamets says he would be happy to share it for free

with affected communities in the Gulf of Mexico.

Six ways mushrooms can save the world.

Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/lLQtR2

Image courtesy of  http://bit.ly/m7U7s3

“Ear traps and continues sound”

Maybe we actually can still hear that person hollering at us or that beautiful melody long after the sound of the voice or instruments are gone.

The some vibrations in the inner ear continue even after a sound has ended researchers have found. In the inner ear seems to serve as the mechanical memory of recent sounds. In addition to contributing to sound perception, auditory memory and understanding.

The inner ear contains a structure called the coiled cochlea, fluid filled structure that contains a “basilar” membrane and associated “hair cells” that serves as the organ of hearing.Sound entering the inner ear causes vibrations of the basilar (bottom ) membrane causing the hair cells to bend and vibrate which in turn convey auditory information to the nervous system.

Some hair cells respond to basilar membrane vibrations by producing forces that increase hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity through mechanisms that are not completely understood.
Dr. Alfred L. Nuttall from the Oregon Hearing Research Centersays his research shows that there is evidence that some tones produce vibrations that continue even after the end of the stimulus.

Using anesthetized guinea pigs, Dr. Nuttall and colleagues recorded basilar membrane motion and hair cell related potentials in response to various sounds. They observed that after-vibrations were dependent on the magnitude and frequency of the sound stimuli and that even minor hearing loss elicited a profound reduction in after-vibrations.

“The after-vibrations ( like an after shock from an earthquake-editor’s note) appear to be driven by sustained force production in the inner ear – a form of short-term memory of past stimulations,” says Dr. Nuttall.

“The ability to detect brief gaps in an ongoing stimulus is critical for speech recognition; gaps need to be longer than a minimal interval to be perceived,” explains Dr. Nutall. “To the extent that after-vibrations excite the auditory nerve fibers, they may explain part of the difficulty in detecting such gaps.” The study is published by Cell Press in Biophysical Journal.
Article courtesy of  http://bit.ly/fUcvnk

Image 1. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/eILAs7

Image 2. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/g5fXWg

“DNR orders vs surgery survival?”

Dr. Saziana Roman,, a surgeon at the Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, and his team analyzed patient databases from more than 120 hospitals across the U.S for how patients fared after surgery. To their surprise they found that about 4,000 patients that had signed the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders did worse after surgery than those that had not signed the agreement.
Results:
1/4 of the DNR patients died in the month following their surgery.
3 times as many as in the comparison group.

  • DNR patients are usually sicker
  • DNR patients also had slightly more complications, such as pneumonia or stroke.

The outcomes depended on the type of surgery.
1/2 of the DNR patients having an exploratory laparotomy(abdominal surgery) died within one month of the surgery, –  one in five of the patients without the order.

“We can now say ‘look, you have a really high chance of dying, do you even want to go through this?'” Roman told Reuters Health, adding that the patient might prefer pain medication such as morphine to surgery.
For thighbone fracture repair or appendectomies, on the other hand, there was no difference between the two patient groups.

Excerpts courtesy of  http://reut.rs/edL3qb

Sample of DNR form

The Prehospital Medical Care Directive form (commonly known as the Do Not Resuscitate or DNR form) is authorized by A.R.S. § 36-3251. The DNR form allows an individual to indicate that he or she does not want to be resuscitated if he or she suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest. The form allows an individual to declare that the following resuscitative measures are not to be used: cardiac compression, endotracheal intubation and other advanced airway management, artificial ventilation, defibrillation, administration of advanced cardiac life support drugs and related emergency medical procedures. The DNR form does not authorize the withholding of other medical interventions, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen, or other therapies deemed necessary to provide comfort care or to alleviate pain.

Emergency medical system and hospital emergency department personnel who make a good faith effort to identify the patient and who rely on an apparently genuine DNR form or photocopy of a DNR form on orange paper are immune from liability to the same extent and under the same conditions as prescribed in A.R.S. § 36-3205. If a person has any doubt as to the validity of a DNR form or the medical situation, that person shall proceed with resuscitative efforts as otherwise required by law. Emergency medical system personnel are not required to accept or interpret medical care directives that do not meet the requirements of A.R.S. § 36-3251.

Specifications regarding the DNR form:

  • The DNR form must be printed on an orange background and may be in either letter or wallet size.
  • The DNR form must include the wording mandated by A.R.S. § 36-3251.
  • A person who has a valid DNR form may wear an identifying bracelet on either the wrist or ankle. The bracelet must:
    • Be substantially similar to identification bracelets worn in hospitals;
    • Be on an orange background; and
    • State in bold type:
      • Do Not Resuscitate,
      • Patient’s name, and
      • Patient’s physician.

Free copies of the DNR form may be requested by calling the Bureau of Emergency Medical Services at (602) 364-3150 or via email. To print a free copy of the form, click below. The links below are available in PDF or Word format. In order to download the PDF version, Acrobat Reader™ is required. Please remember that the law requires that the form be on orange paper.
• Letter-size version of the DNR form [PDF 52K] [DOC 22K]
• Wallet-size version of the DNR form [PDF 56K] [DOC 22K]

Resource courtesy of  http://1.usa.gov/gyXg2q