“DNR orders vs surgery survival?”

Dr. Saziana Roman,, a surgeon at the Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, and his team analyzed patient databases from more than 120 hospitals across the U.S for how patients fared after surgery. To their surprise they found that about 4,000 patients that had signed the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders did worse after surgery than those that had not signed the agreement.
Results:
1/4 of the DNR patients died in the month following their surgery.
3 times as many as in the comparison group.

  • DNR patients are usually sicker
  • DNR patients also had slightly more complications, such as pneumonia or stroke.

The outcomes depended on the type of surgery.
1/2 of the DNR patients having an exploratory laparotomy(abdominal surgery) died within one month of the surgery, –  one in five of the patients without the order.

“We can now say ‘look, you have a really high chance of dying, do you even want to go through this?'” Roman told Reuters Health, adding that the patient might prefer pain medication such as morphine to surgery.
For thighbone fracture repair or appendectomies, on the other hand, there was no difference between the two patient groups.

Excerpts courtesy of  http://reut.rs/edL3qb

Sample of DNR form

The Prehospital Medical Care Directive form (commonly known as the Do Not Resuscitate or DNR form) is authorized by A.R.S. § 36-3251. The DNR form allows an individual to indicate that he or she does not want to be resuscitated if he or she suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest. The form allows an individual to declare that the following resuscitative measures are not to be used: cardiac compression, endotracheal intubation and other advanced airway management, artificial ventilation, defibrillation, administration of advanced cardiac life support drugs and related emergency medical procedures. The DNR form does not authorize the withholding of other medical interventions, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen, or other therapies deemed necessary to provide comfort care or to alleviate pain.

Emergency medical system and hospital emergency department personnel who make a good faith effort to identify the patient and who rely on an apparently genuine DNR form or photocopy of a DNR form on orange paper are immune from liability to the same extent and under the same conditions as prescribed in A.R.S. § 36-3205. If a person has any doubt as to the validity of a DNR form or the medical situation, that person shall proceed with resuscitative efforts as otherwise required by law. Emergency medical system personnel are not required to accept or interpret medical care directives that do not meet the requirements of A.R.S. § 36-3251.

Specifications regarding the DNR form:

  • The DNR form must be printed on an orange background and may be in either letter or wallet size.
  • The DNR form must include the wording mandated by A.R.S. § 36-3251.
  • A person who has a valid DNR form may wear an identifying bracelet on either the wrist or ankle. The bracelet must:
    • Be substantially similar to identification bracelets worn in hospitals;
    • Be on an orange background; and
    • State in bold type:
      • Do Not Resuscitate,
      • Patient’s name, and
      • Patient’s physician.

Free copies of the DNR form may be requested by calling the Bureau of Emergency Medical Services at (602) 364-3150 or via email. To print a free copy of the form, click below. The links below are available in PDF or Word format. In order to download the PDF version, Acrobat Reader™ is required. Please remember that the law requires that the form be on orange paper.
• Letter-size version of the DNR form [PDF 52K] [DOC 22K]
• Wallet-size version of the DNR form [PDF 56K] [DOC 22K]

Resource courtesy of  http://1.usa.gov/gyXg2q

“Hope filter radioactive H2O”

As our collective conscious grows and we work together may positive changes are taking place-there is no need to fear.

A natural way to remove radioactive contaminants from water.

The new material is a combination of hemicellulose, a byproduct of forest materials, and chitosan, crushed and powdered crustacean shells that will absorbs water and actually extract contaminates, such as radioactive iodide, from the water itself says researchers from North Carolina State University have found.
“As we’re currently seeing in Japan, one of the major health risks posed by nuclear accidents is radioactive iodide that dissolves into drinking water. Because it is chemically identical to non-radioactive iodide, the human body cannot distinguish it – which is what allows it to accumulate in the thyroid and eventually lead to cancer,” says Dr. Joel Pawlak, associate professor of forest biomaterials.
“The material that we’ve developed binds iodide in water and traps it, which can then be properly disposed of without risk to humans or the environment.”
The new material – a combination of hemicellulose, a byproduct of forest materials, and chitosan, crustacean shells that have been crushed into a powder – not only absorbs water, but can actually extract contaminates, such as radioactive iodide, from the water itself.
This material, which forms a solid foam, has applications beyond radioactive materials. Pawlak and fellow researchers found that it has the ability to remove heavy metals – such as arsenic – from water or salt from sea water to make clean drinking water.
“In disaster situations with limited-to-no power source, desalinating drinking water is difficult, if not impossible. This foam could be brought along in such situations to clean the water without the need for electricity,” Pawlak says.
“This material could completely change the way we safeguard the world’s drinking water supply.”
The foam, which is coated on wood fibers, is used like a sponge that is immersed in water. For smaller-scale applications, the foam could be used in something like a tea bag.

On a larger scale, water could be poured through it like a filter.
Pawlak worked with NC State professor Dr. Richard Venditti on the research, which was funded by the Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research, the N.C. Forestry Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Additional research into how the material can be used on a larger scale is currently being conducted.

Excerpts courtesy of http://bit.ly/gw8p59

“O2 to the rescue”

Healing should be a simple noninvasive and natural process.

High Dose Of Oxygen Enhances Natural Cancer Treatment


A Petri dish with human cancer cells was placed in this high-pressure oxygen chamber for 48 hours. Source: Reimers Systems

An environment of pure oxygen at three-and-a-half times normal air pressure adds significantly to the effectiveness of a natural compound already shown to kill cancerous cells, researchers at the University of Washington and Washington State University recently reported in the journal Anticancer Research.

The compound artemisinin – isolated from Artemisia annua L, commonly known as wormwood – is a natural remedy widely used to treat malaria. In the mid-1990s UW researchers were the first to explore its ability to treat cancer.

In the new study, using artemisinin or high-pressure oxygen alone on a culture of human leukemia cells reduced the cancer cells’ growth by 15 percent. Using them in combination reduced the cells’ growth by 38 percent, a 50 percent increase in artemisinin’s effectiveness.(“Other natural substances like prickly pear concentrate has upwards of 100% kill in vitro – editor’s note)

“If you combine high-pressure oxygen with artemisinin you can get a much better curing effect,” said author Henry Lai, a UW research professor of bioengineering. “We only measured up to 48 hours. Over longer time periods we expect the synergistic effects to be even more dramatic.”

The history of artemisinin brings to mind an Indiana Jones story. In the early 1970s, Lai says, Chinese leader Mao Zedong issued an order to develop an anti-malarial treatment. At the same time, a farmer in central China discovered a 2,000-year-old tomb that contained three coffins.

One coffin contained a silk scroll describing various prescriptions, including artemisinin to treat malaria. The Chinese followed the directions and thus rediscovered an ancient remedy.

Today, artemisinin is widely used in Asia and Africa for malaria treatment.

In the decades since, scientists have discovered artemisinin reacts with iron within a cell to form a free radical, a highly reactive charged particle that destroys the cell. Because the malaria parasite is high in iron, artemisinin targets malaria-infected cells.

Since rapidly dividing cancer cells also need iron to form new DNA, Lai theorized they would also make targets for artemisinin. Subsequent research showed this to be the case.

Lai and colleagues at the UW developed a variant several thousand times more potent than natural artemisinin, which was licensed in 2004 to a Chinese company.

“Artemisinin is a promising low-cost cancer treatment because it’s specific, it’s cheap and you don’t have to inject it,” Lai said. “It’s 100 times more specific than traditional chemotherapy,” he added. “In breast cancer, it’s even better.”

Lai says he’s long hypothesized that high oxygen levels would enhance artemisinin’s effects, because oxygen promotes the formation of free radicals. In 2010, he put the theory to the test in a hyperbaric chamber that co-author Raymond Quock, WSU professor and chair of pharmaceutical sciences, has been using to study highly pressurized oxygen’s ability to relieve pain.

Hyperbaric chambers, filled with oxygen at high pressure, help scuba divers who surface too quickly gradually readjust to normal oxygen levels. A photo of pop singer Jackson in the mid-80s sleeping in a portable hyperbaric chamber sparked rumors that he was trying to heal scars from plastic surgery, retain his youthful appearance or extend his lifespan.

The photo turned out to be a publicity stunt, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved hyperbaric oxygen therapy for several ailments, including decompression sickness, carbon-monoxide poisoning, severe burns and slow-to-heal wounds.

In clinical practice, the artemisinin-hyperbaric study could lead to people or animals spending time in a hyperbaric chamber to enhance the artemisinin’s effectiveness.

Other co-authors are Yusuke Ohgami, Catherine Elstad and Eunhee Chung of WSU and Donald Shirachi of the Chico Hyperbaric Center. The research was funded by the Washington State University College of Pharmacy and the Chico Hyperbaric Center.

In related artemisinin work, funded through a $1.5 million grant from the state’s Life Sciences Discovery Fund to a team led by UW chemistry professor Tomikazu Sasaki:

UW researchers are developing synthetic artemisinin compounds with enhanced potency and anti-cancer selectivity, and WSU researchers are conducting a clinical trial evaluating these compounds’ ability to treat cancer in dogs. The molecular-engineered artemisinin compounds, which are stronger and more targeted than natural artemisinin but can still be taken by mouth, are licensed to Artemisia Biomedical of Newcastle, Wash.

WSU crop scientists are planting Artemisia annua in eastern Washington to test whether the region could plant artemisinin as a commercial crop.

Researchers are working with Northwest Organic Foods, a Washington chicken-feed company, to try adding artemisinin, instead of small amounts of arsenic, to chicken feed. Artemisinin acts as a natural preventative for avian coccidia infection, one of the poultry industry’s most costly parasitic diseases.

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“LOXL2 enzyme spreads cancer”

Did you know?
90 percent of cancer-related deaths occur because a tumor migrates around the patient’s body.
A key to unlock metatasis

The LOXL2 enzyme activity has been linked to the metastasis of a variety of different cancers, including breast, esophageal, colon, and squamous cell cancers.

Researchers analysis of breast cancer patients, found poor survival rates and the spread of some cancers  was linked to high levels of the LOXL2 enzyme. This enzyme  has been linked to the early stages of metastasis of these cancers into the bloodstream.

Around 47,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in the UK each year and around 12,000 die from the disease.

Recent studies have shown that the lifetime risk of the disease for women is now one in eight.

Experts blamed lifestyle factors, including obesity and drinking alcohol, for fuelling the rise.

Women are also more likely to have children later in life and fewer offspring, which influences the risk.

In the latest study, published in the journal Cancer Research, experts found that LOXL2 promotes the spread of breast cancer through the way it controls two proteins, TIMP1 and MMP9.

In the mice studies, antibodies and chemicals were used to block LOXL2 activity. This prevented breast cancer from metastasizing to other tissues.
These findings are important are an important role in developing a test to try and predict the possible spread of cancer and possible patient outcomes.
Director of Research and Policy at Breast Cancer Campaign, Arlene Wilkie, said, “by using LOXL2 to predict whose cancer will spread and drugs to block the enzyme to stop this from happening, many more lives could be saved.”

This laboratory research shows great promise and we look forward to seeing how it translates into patients.”

Resources

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“Lavender oil destroys fungal infections”

Fungi are increasingly resistant to drugs. It is urgent to explore alternatives to combat fungal infections.  Lavender (Lavendula) is an herbal plant whose essential oil have been used for centuries to heal skin tissue from burns, often used as a mild antidepressant and for its anticeptic qualities and as an exotic edible condiment. Finally modern western medical research is being forced to study how it works for its significant clinical benefits.

Lavender oil derived from pressing the leaves and distilling the essence from the volatile oils could be used to combat the increasing incidence of antifungal-resistant infections, according to a study published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology.

The essential oil shows a potent antifungal effect against strains of fungi responsible for common skin and nail infections.

 

Scientists from the University of Coimbra in Portugal distilled lavender oil from the Lavandula viridis L’Her shrub that grows in southern Portugal. The oil was tested against a range of pathogenic fungi and was found to be lethal to a range of skin-pathogenic strains, known as dermatophytes, as well as various species of Candida.
Dermatophytes cause infections of the skin, hair and nails as they use the keratin within these tissues to obtain nutrients. They are responsible for conditions such as Athletes’ foot, ringworm and can also lead to scalp and nail infections.
Candida species coexist with most healthy individuals without causing problems but may cause mucocutaneous candidosis – or thrush – in some people. In immunocompromised patients, Candida species are able to cause serious infection if the fungal cells escape into the blood stream.
Currently, there are relatively few types of antifungal drugs to treat infections and those that are available often have side effects. Professor Ligia Salgueiro and Professor Eugenia Pinto who led this study explained why novel fungicides are urgently needed.
“In the last few years there has been an increase in the incidence of fungal diseases, particularly among immunocompromised patients,” they said.
“Unfortunately there is also increasing resistance to antifungal drugs. Research by our group and others has shown that essential oils may be cheap, efficient alternatives that have minimal side effects.”
Essential oils distilled from the Lavandula genus of lavender plants are already used widely, particularly in the food, perfume and cosmetic industries. Studies of the biological activities of these oils suggest Lavandula oils have sedative and antispasmodic properties as well being potent antimicrobials and antioxidants.

This group has demonstrated that these oils work by destroying fungal cells by damaging the cell membrane. They believe that further research into the mechanisms by which this essential oil works could have significant clinical benefits.

“Lavandula oil shows wide-spectrum antifungal activity and is highly potent. This is a good starting point for developing this oil for clinical use to manage fungal infections. What is now required is clinical trials to evaluate how our in vitro work translates in vivo,” said Professor Salgueiro.

This group has demonstrated that these oils work by destroying fungal cells by damaging the cell membrane. They believe that further research into the mechanisms by

Other uses for lavender include lavender oil used for inhalation therapy to treat headaches, nervous disorders, and exhaustion. Herbalists treat skin ailments, such as fungal infections (like candidiasis), wounds, eczema, and acne, with lavender oil. It is also used in a healing bath for joint and muscle pain. One study evaluating treatments for children with eczema founded it was therapeutic touch from the mother that improved symptoms; in other words, massage with and without essential oils (including lavender) both reduced the dry, scaly skin lesions. Another study found that lavender oil may improve pain control after surgery. Fifty patients undergoing breast biopsy surgery received either oxygen supplemented with lavender oil or oxygen alone. Patients in the lavender group reported better pain control than patients in the control group.

Resources

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“Change your burned skin – change your life”

Gunning for success

Burn care and healing has been fraught with extreem pain and long crueling amounts of time to heal. Now the prayers have been answered with a gun. Until now burns have usually been treated with skin grafts, which involve taking skin sections from uninjured parts of the patient’s body, or growing sheets of skin artificially, and grafting them over the burn. The grafts can take several weeks or even months to heal, and during the recovery period patients are prone to infections because of the damage to the skin, which is the body’s first line of defense against pathogens.
Scientists have been able to regenerate skin in the laboratory for decades, but the process takes two to three weeks and the sheets of skin produced are fragile. When grafted on, blisters can form beneath it due to secretions, and can push up against the sheet and damage it. Scaring scars lives.

Enter the Skin-cell Gun

The skin sprayer works like a very high tech paint spray gun. Originally developed by Professor Joerg C. Gerlach and colleages of the Department of Surgery at the University of Pittsburg’s McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

Skin spraying have been in use  in Australia, where Dr Fiona Wood of the West Australia Burns Unit developed a method called “spray-on-skin.” Dr Wood’s method uses an aerosol system to spray on cultured skin cells.

This system also cuts healing time to days rather than weeks or months, and the technique substantially cut the death toll in the Bali bombings in 2002.

Dr Gerlach said the new method uses an electronically controlled pneumatic device that does not injure the cells, while the other skin spraying devices are hand-pumped atomizers.
In a process taking only an hour and a half in total, a biopsy is taken from the patient’s undamaged skin and then healthy stem cells are isolated from the biopsy and an aqueous solution containing the cells is sprayed on the burn.
The sprayed wound is then covered with a newly-developed dressing with tubes enmeshed within it and extending from each end. One set of tubes functions as an artery, while the second set functions as a vein. The tubes are connected to an “artificial vascular system” and provide electrolytes, antibiotics, amino acids and glucose to the wound. The dressing keeps the wound clean and sterile, and provides nutrition for the skin stem cells to encourage them to regenerate new skin.
After treatment the wound heals in just days, when it would have taken weeks to heal using traditional treatments. Dr Gerlach said patients had been treated at the Berlin Burn Center and they had regrown skin over a burned ear or an entire face in only a few days.

At the moment the technique can only be used on second-degree burns, but Dr Gerlach hopes it will later be able to tackle third-degree burns as well.
The research is funded by the US Department of Defense under the Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine (AFIRM) consortium of research institutions, which was formed in 2008 to research better treatments for wounded service personnel.
The Skin-cell Gun was shown on the National Geographic channel in the episode Explorer: How to Build a Beating Heart, which looks at the latest tissue regeneration techniques.
More information

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“Health risks Benadryl + diphenhydramine”

Drugs commonly taken for a variety of common medical conditions negatively affect your brain, causing long term cognitive impairment. They include such common over-the-counter brands as Benadryl (or Dimedrol in other countries), Dramamine, Excedrin PM, Nytol, Sominex, Tylenol PM, Midol PM and Advil PM though some Unisom products contain doxylamine instead.
Other anticholinergic drugs, such as Paxil, Detrol, Demerol and Elavil are available only by prescription.
One of the oldest antihistamines on the market Benadryl is more effective than even some of the latest prescription drugs. It is frequently used to stop or reduce the uncomfortable itchy and inflammation associated with an allergic reaction. It is fast and often effective at reversing the sometimes dangerous effects of a massive histamine release.
On the other side of this drug’s picture are adverse side effects often worse and more life threatening in children and the elderly or those chronically ill.
Diphenhydramine works by blocking the effect of histamine at H1 receptor sites. This results in effects such as the increase of vascular smooth muscle contraction, thus reducing the redness, hyperthermia and edema that occurs during an inflammatory reaction. In addition, by blocking the H1 receptor on peripheral nociceptors, diphenhydramine decreases their sensitization and consequently reduces itching that is associated with an allergic reaction.
Benadryl is the oldest antihistamine, diphenhydramine, is a potent anticholinergic agent.
The possible effects of Diphenhydramine include:

Ataxia; loss of coordination
Decreased mucus production in the nose and throat; consequent dry, sore throat
Xerostomia or dry-mouth with possible acceleration of dental caries
Cessation of perspiration; consequent decreased epidermal thermal dissipation leading to warm, blotchy, or red skin
Increased body temperature
Pupil dilation (mydriasis); consequent sensitivity to bright light (photophobia)
Loss of accommodation (loss of focusing ability, blurred vision — cycloplegia)
Double-vision (diplopia)
Increased heart rate (tachycardia)
Tendency to be easily startled
Urinary retention
Diminished bowel movement, sometimes ileus – (decreases motility via the vagus nerve)
Increased intraocular pressure; dangerous for people with narrow-angle glaucoma
Shaking
Possible effects in the central nervous system resemble those associated with delirium, and may include:
Confusion
Disorientation
Agitation
Euphoria or dysphoria
Respiratory depression
Memory problems
Inability to concentrate
Wandering thoughts; inability to sustain a train of thought
Incoherent speech
Wakeful myoclonic jerking
Unusual sensitivity to sudden sounds
Illogical thinking
Photophobia
Visual disturbances
Periodic flashes of light
Periodic changes in visual field
Visual snow
Restricted or “tunnel vision”
Visual, auditory, or other sensory hallucinations
Warping or waving of surfaces and edges
Textured surfaces
“Dancing” lines; “spiders”, insects; form constants
Lifelike objects indistinguishable from reality
Hallucinated presence of people not actually there
Rarely: seizures, coma, and death

Since 2002, the US FDA requires special labeling warning against using multiple products that contain diphenhydramine. Diphenhydramine has been shown to build tolerance against its sedation effectiveness very quickly, with placebo-like results after a third day of common dosage.

Caution:

Severe reactions (children) to diphenhydramine are documented, particularly amongst children, and it may cause excitation instead of sedation.
Severe reactions (elderly) are also common in the elderly.Because of potential for more severe side effects, diphenhydramine is on the “Beers list” to avoid in the elderly. (See NCQA’s HEDIS Measure: Use of High Risk Medications in the Elderly,

Caution: Benadryl Itch Stopping Gel contains additional ingredients including camphor. It is dangerous when swallowed.

Resources

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“Face to face match made by angels”

A perfect match.

Anna Kasper, who took care of nursing home patients, delivered pizza and cleaned offices, had a warm giving personality.

Recipient of first full face transplanta down-to-earth goodness, a love of life, a spirit of giving.

Connie Culp, (Seen on the right.) who waited tables and painted restaurants and shared her time and good will with people before a tragedy nearly took her life. Connie has became the recipient of the first successful near-total face transplant in the United States.

She rose above life’s challenges, and kept her sense of humor no matter how rough things got. This gift has helped her recover.

In a groundbreaking transplant Cleveland Clinic doctors performed a face transplant in 2008.
Anna Kasper’s family made the announcement to give Anna her place in medical history.

Connie’s life after her surgery.
“Connie’s like Anna in a lot of ways,” says Ron Kasper, Anna’s husband, “…enjoyes life, smiles lots and has a great attitude even after everything she’s been through.
Saturday the two families met for the first time.
It was great how much the two clans had in common.

Both are very nice people.
Ron and his son remodel homes and paint for a living.
Connie Culp and her husband had a painting business and remodeled their home together.
The Kaspers had a grandchild who was about a year old at the time of the transplant.
Connie did, too.
The two women were born 14 months apart.
Their skin color is incredibly similar.
Their blood type, identical.

It was Ron and the couple’s three children who agreed to donate Anna’s face back in December 2008, the day after Anna collapsed and died on her back porch.

Their son, Ronald, now 21, found Anna slumped over at the bottom of the back steps she was purple. Paramedics revived her on the way to Lakewood Hospital, but tests showed what the family already knew. The 44-year-old woman was brain dead.

The family folowed Anna’s wishes.
In life she shared her time, money and many things with other people. In death her organs and  tissues continue to give life to others.
However, no one was prepared for the call from a specialist from the Cleveland Clinic, who called the house to ask for Anna’s face.  The family only took minutes to agree.

Anna wished to be cremated, so there wasn’t going to be an open casket. And that Anna was already an organ donor and her face bones, muscles and other tissues were a perfect match. This was a miracle in itself.

“But the overriding factor was we knew it was what Anna would’ve wanted,” says Ron, his voice breaking as he fights back tears.
“My mom would say, ‘Hell if I can’t use it and somebody else can, they can have it,’ ” Becky says.

No doubt Connie needed a face. In 2004 her common-law husband shot her in in the face, Connie was so disfigured, children ran from her and called her a monster.
Her nose was missing. So was her right eye, her lower eyelids, her upper lip, her top teeth. She had to breathe through a hole in her throat and eat through a tube. Most of her vision was gone.

On Dec. 10, 2008, surgeons at the Cleveland Clinic spent 23 hours removing skin and muscle, veins and arteries, teeth and bone from Anna and sewing them onto what remained of Connie Culp’s face, surgery that changed her life.

Connie, 47, has been thanking her donor from the moment she stepped out on the public stage in 2009, never able to name her because she didn’t know who she was.
Today she can.

Neil Lantzy, Cleveland ClinicBecky Kasper hugs Connie Culp after meeting her for the first time Saturday. Becky, her brother, sister and father agreed to donate her mother’s face to Connie after Anna Kasper died of a heart attack.
Connie doesn’t look like Anna because their bone structure is different.
“But I can definitely see the resemblance in the nose,” Becky says. “I know she’s smiling down on this, that she’s very happy.”

More than 50 people benefited from Anna’s donated organs and tissue.

People Helping People

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“So sweet -plastic without petrochemicals”

The Sweetness of Biodegradable Plastics

A Tel Aviv University researcher is a new plastic made from corn starch and sugar. This plastic would be sustainable, biodegradable and are even tougher than those made from petrochemicals.

Now all that is needed is the catalyst to jump start the chemical reactions. Prof. Moshe Kol of Tel Aviv University’s School of Chemistry and his team are working with the University of Aachen in Germany and the University of Bath in England are working to make these “green” plastics stronger and more heat-resistant, allowing them to be used in a variety of ways, from the automotive industry to Starbucks coffee cups.

The type of plastic the partners are working on, polylactic acid or PLA, is a kind of biodegradable plastic made from renewable plant sources such as corn, wheat or sugarcane. It’s already used in bottles, bags, and film, and like polyester can even be woven into clothes.

He aims to make sustainable corn-based plastics complement or replace the petroleum-based plastics which can take a millenium to degrade, leaving harmful pollutants in the soil and in water. Corn-based plastic wouldn’t cause any adverse health effects and would be expected to biodegrade in a compost bin in a matter of months.

Resource

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