“Is gene control cause of slow recovery from Jet Lag? – ridiculous

La Roche labs is looking for their next big win. Jet Lag?

According to the study, mice reveal why the body is so slow to recover from jet-lag and identifies a target for the development of drugs that could help us to adjust faster to changes in time zone.

“With funding from the Wellcome Trust and F. Hoffmann La Roche, researchers at the University of Oxford and F. Hoffmann La Roche have identified a mechanism that limits the ability of the body clock to adjust to changes in patterns of light and dark. And the team show that if you block the activity of this gene in mice, they recover faster from disturbances in their daily light/dark cycle that were designed to simulate jet-lag.”

According to acupuncture meridian points can reset jet lag quickly an easily in minutes with no drugs needed.  Neural Kinesiology  also can reset the body’s brain clock quickly without the need for a drug.  Biontology also can reset the body’s energies after long trips.

Written by Dr. Mary Wolken PhD

Resource: http://medicalxpress.com

Bye Bye grey hair

Getting rid of that gray hair without toxic dyes…Researchers in the the FASEB Journal have found that hair grays because of oxidative stressdue to the huge accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the hair follicles. This causes bleaching from the inside out. So a new treatment using topical UVB-activated compound called PC-KUS (a modified pseudocatalase). For more information: 
In the future, sudden loss of the inherited skin and localized hair color won’t have the same devastating affects on the health of so many.

“Bacteria die on cicada wings-new treatment?”

Researchers have found that cicada wing structure able to kill bacteria on contact.
Researchers find cicada wing structure able to kill bacteria on contact
Below is an enlarged Cicada (P. claripennis) wing surface. Credit: Biophysical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2012.12.046 (Phys.org)
A combined team of researchers from Spain and Australia believe their research shows the first known Researchers find cicada wing structure able to kill bacteria on contact (w/ video)occurence of a natural chitin biomaterial that can kill bacteria on contact. It seems to kill the bacteria through simple surface contact.
(Could this be a natural “cure for Monsanto ruling the world?- editor’s note.
Scientists in Biophysical Journal explained howthe Clanger cicadas have nanoscale sized pillars on their wings that trap and slowly kill bacteria by pulling their cells apart.  Sounds like the basis for the next Sci-Fi movie blockbuster.

The new disc drive for the human chromosome

Rewritable digital data storage in live cells via engineered control of recombination directionality

  1. Jerome Bonnet,
  2. Pakpoom Subsoontorn, and
  3. Drew Endy1

+ Author Affiliations

  1. Department of Bioengineering, Room 269B, Y2E2 Building, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
  1. Edited by David Baker, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, and approved April 6, 2012 (received for review February 8, 2012)


The use of synthetic biological systems in research, healthcare, and manufacturing often requires autonomous history-dependent behavior and therefore some form of engineered biological memory. For example, the study or reprogramming of aging, cancer, or development would benefit from genetically encoded counters capable of recording up to several hundred cell division or differentiation events. Although genetic material itself provides a natural data storage medium, tools that allow researchers to reliably and reversibly write information to DNA in vivo are lacking. Here, we demonstrate a re-writeable recombinase addressable data (RAD) module that reliably stores digital information within a chromosome.It is like having a small disc drive associated with your computer now we have that ability with living cells. For more information

” Biophotons – light that heals”

The Science of Biophotons Healing with light
By Johan Boswinkel

In the late 1970’s,  biophotons were discovered by the German physicist Fritz-Albert Popp. Biophotons are photons (light particles) that are emitted by living systems. Fritz-Albert Popp discovered that in healthy cells the light emission was coherent (waves with similar direction, amplitude, and phase that are capable of exhibiting interference.) and that the radiation of photons was chaotic in diseased systems.

I read about these findings in the early eighties and it answered my question about human beings, how and why do they function as they are. I wondered why human beings are being eliminated in all science, even in the medical sciences. You learn all about organs, bacteria, drugs, etc., but nothing about human beings. It is perhaps because then all becomes very unpredictable but without the human beings involved all has nothing to do with reality.

The publications by Fritz Albert Popp made clear to me that we are all light beings, something that was known in ancient Egypt, as has already been described in “The Book of the Dead”. It also says that people thought with their hearts., something that is really possible. If you think with your heart then your heart and your brains do not get into conflict and you have no stress.

The biophotons are information packages that control all biochemical reactions. They are the electromagnetic signals that precede every biochemical reaction.

The biophotons are so incredibly weak that a very strong photomultiplier was needed to be able to detect them. The photomultiplier was so strong that it could detect a glow worm at a able to detect them at a distance of 20 kilometers.distance of 20 kilometers.

The biophotons are emitted by every cell. Because there is only one source per cell, Dr. Popp assumed that the DNA was emitting them, because the DNA is the only thing of which there is only one in every cell. I found that there is another possibility and that is if the biophotons are not an emission but a reflection. Due to quite a number of “coincidences” I have come to the belief that the biophotons are actually the light of the soul.

All information is in the light
The body reveals its total condition in the light that is emitted from the cells. If a system is healthy then the biophoton measurement shows a straight line on a log-log model. If there is a disturbance in the light, the log-log line is in the form of a hyperbole. There is the same phenomenon using the measurements of the acupuncture points: no disturbance gives a straight line using the galvanic skin resistance (EAV= Electro Acupiuncture according to Voll) and a disorder gives a curved line. It seems that measurement of the biophotons corresponds with measurement of the galvanic skin resistance, i.e. the biophotons determine the skin resistance.

Death the absence of light
This also shows with death. From the research done by Firtz Albert Popp we know that with death all light disappears and that one cannot get any measurements with the EAV system if one is dead. Prof. Claude Vincent already informed us many years ago that the EAV method is the easiest method to determine if somebody is dead.  Approximately 4% of all people are buried alive. They seem dead but are not.
Death of a cell is also remarkably similar to death of a star. When a cell dies it changes into a supernova whereby the light emission increases a thousandfold and then goes back to zero in about 72 hours.  Probably these are the moments when very seriously ill people suddenly get better, only to die after a few days. These couple of days are the days of the supernova. During these days the body balances itself out and one will find all points on the body with exactly the same value.

All acupuncture points have their own meridian
Although it seems that an acupuncture meridian has many points on it, I have come to the conclusion that each point has its own meridian. Each of the those meridiasn occupy the same space and therefore it looks like one meridian but in fact they are different. Energetically this is definitely possible if all points have their own wavelength on which they transfer information. This seems the only way that each point can be linked to a specific part of an organ or a particular system, like Dr. Voll has already shown.

I have also noted a distinct relationships between physical conditions and measured values on acupuncture points. I have called the meridians biophoton highways and I placed the TW and CI meridians as circles around and inside the pentagon of the 5 elements. I felt they had no place inside the 5 element teaching. I have the impression that the hormonal system(TW) and the Circulation are in the body but not of the body.

The roots of dis-ease
Over the years I traced many symptoms back to their causes. For example: Crohn’s disease and Colitis Ulcerosa are caused by appendicitis, a lot of lung problems, including Asthma, are caused by a whiplash, which is a very common ailment, not just caused by car collisions but by many conditions, even by birth itself.
Homeopathy has also been a very important tool in my research. After all, homeopathic remedies are also full of biophotons. I found that potencies higher than 9x (D9) have an opposite information signal, i.e. the lower potencies (below 9x (D9)) have the same signal, the potencies higher than 9x (D9) have an opposite signal and thus a neutralizing function.

Biontology, as I have come to call my biophoton system, is a synthesis of the teachings of many modalities: ayurvedic, homeopathy, acupuncture, orthodox medicine,physics  and modern technologies. Of all modalities I have taken that part which I consider to be universal truth. The rest of the teachings I have discarded as being not valid anymore. A lot of the systems have been developed in ancient times and were for particular cultures at particular times. Humanity has changed. In my opinion the various modalities are very useful in treating natural diseases, but are not very successful in treating man-made illnesses which I believe is the majority of things that have gone wrong with the people. Often it is said that modern medicine has made people live longer, but as Fritz Popp has said, modern medicine has made people die slower.

Biophoton therapy
The biophoton therapy is a biofeedback system, whereby the body regulates itself. It chooses the remedial wavelengths iteself and also chooses the remedies and the quantities by itself, all is based on resonance.  The therapist makes the remedies available but the body chooses which ones it wants and how much of them. With the biophoton therapy we mostly make use of complex homeopathy and nosodes and only in some cases we make use of single remedies, but also the single remedies are in potency accords of 12 x (D12), 30x (D30) and 200 x (D200).

Resetting the body
The therapy is effective in almost all functional disturbances of the body, but also in plants and animals. This is because the therapists does not do the diagnosis but the body itself. The same thing happens with the therapy, the body does it itself. Contrary to orthodox medicine and most of complemetary medicine, the biophoton therapy  does not treat symptoms, in other words it does not treat diseases or pains.

Biontology treats causes or it treats the self restoring capabilities of the body.

Then the body itself treats the diseases.

And in this the biontology sets itself apart from all other medicine
Animals and little children restore fastest. I believe this is because children and animals have one thing in common: they do not think. This phenomena has been a research object in one of the theses: 92.7% of 133 chronic complaints had disappeared within 2 weeks of biophoton therapy. Children and animal sessions only take a few minutes.
Qualitative Biophoton Science
Biophotons are considered main stream science by universities. They have been proven to exist and it is very likely that they control all biochemical reactions. Approximately 60 Universities do research into the biophotons, but I believe that this will not lead to any breakthroughs. This is because science only does quantitative research while the biophotons have more to do with quality.
Biophotons also have to do with reality. For something to be scientific, it has to be repeatable. In nature, nothing is ever repeatable, therefore nature is not scientific. Billions of changes happen every split second.
Together with the Inter-University College in Graz, Austria, we have created this “non-science” of biophotons into a science. It is a non science because its effects can only be found in the quality, but 16 theses have proven the effects of the therapy:
biophoton therapy and its perceptible effect on human blood; biophoton therapy and quality of life of children with chronic complaints and food hypersensitivities; health and quality of life of clients with random complaints under treatment with biophoton therapy; the effect of biophoton intervention on the pH level of aging milk;

Research papers by J.Boswinkel include: “Repeatability of measurements using biophoton device;  The  effects of biophoton treatment, on isolated cortical neurons of rats, using the biophoton device; Germination of wheat seedlings and treatment with the biophoton device.
The Health Angel Academy and the Institute of Applied Biophoton Sciences offer continuous education and practical training in various countries.

The Science of Biophotons Healing with light

Other research into biophoton energy includes

In 2010 17 students attained their master degrees at the Inter-University College in Graz, Austria. The master degress were in Complementary and Integrated Health Sciences, with specialization in biophotons, At present there are 7 students going on for their doctoral program.
Current agriculture research
Since February of this year another research project is under way. It is a research project of the Agricultural  University of Wageningen in Holland. The research project focuses on the health of chicken and eggs and hope to improve their health by means of the biophotons. In August there will be two more research projects starting: one on tomatoes and one on potatoes.

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“Eye changes happen before AD”

There is an old expression that says “The eyes are the window to the soul.” Now it seems the eyes may also be the window of Alzheimer’s disease.” – M. Wolken CMA 2011.

The blood vessels of the eye may be  the mirror to show if someone is in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). New research indicates that the disease has been reported to affect the eye and the brain tissues.
Will this become the much needed early detection diagnostic tool in preventing or modifying the destruction caused by this condition?

Using the eyes as a window to brain activity is much more accessible for imaging than the brain, according to Shaun Frost, MSc, a PhD candidate at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization’s Australian e-Health Research Center, in Perth, Australia.
Retinal Photographs -the retinal vascular changes as a biomarker for AD.

There is a relationship between those parameters or biomarkers and the build up of neocortical plaque as early sign of AD.

“Today, there is no single method for detecting Alzheimer’s until the disease is well advanced,” he said. Current positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging scans can detect some brain changes, but can be expensive and technically challenging, so are impractical for testing in large populations.
In the research, retinal photographs were collected and analyzed using semiautomated software to examine a variety of parameters, including the width of retinal vessels. The researchers calculated the central retinal arterial and venular equivalent thickness and arteriolar-venular ratio (AVR) for each participant. All had amyloid plaque burden measured using PET Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) imaging as part of the AIBL study protocol.
They found the AVR was higher in patients with AD (P = .001) and that veins were thinner (P =.01). “Now that we’ve separated the healthy controls into those who test positive and those who test negative for elevated plaque burden, you see a difference in the retina between those groups,” Mr. Frost explained. “The latter patients are considered to have preclinical AD…These findings indicate a relationship between Alzheimer’s disease, changes in the retina, and plaque burden in the brain…”
Research is looking at other changes in the eye that might relate to AD, including supranuclear cataracts and other molecular changes.

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“Want fried glucose in your brain?”

Do you want to serve yourself up some” fried glucose” in your brain? Just use your cell phone for 50 minutes at a time while holding it against your ear. The brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the phone’s antenna is effected.

What is glucose?   Glucose, blood sugar, the major energy source for brain energy enters the brain from the arterial side and is absorbed by astrocytes, which then transform glucose to lactate. Lactate exchange occurs with neurons, which oxidize it to CO2 and H2O drained by the venous blood. The increase in lactate levels and the uncoupling between oxygen consumption and glucose uptake revealed by PET at the early stages of activation, cause lactate fluxes between astrocytes and neurons.

When you hold a cell phone to your ear in an on position for 50 minutes or more it changes the way glucose moves through the brain cells. The area begins to heat only after 5 minutes and changes the biochemistry as proven by PET scans.
During cell phone use in the on and then off positions and found that although whole-brain metabolism was not affected, metabolism was increased in the orbitofrontal cortex and the temporal pole areas of the brain while the cell phone was on, areas that are close to where phone’s antenna meets the head.(brain energy metabolism).
Blood-borne glucose is the brain’s fuel and is needed to supply the moment-to-moment changes in energy demand during information processing, the local rates of blood flow and glucose utilization are closely linked to the activities of brain cells. Because the blood-brain barrier restricts transfer of material from blood into brain, many compounds that are readily metabolized by cultured brain cells or brain slices, including lactate, cannot be transported into adult brain in vivo in sufficient quantities to compensate for inadequate levels of glucose and support the brain’s high and continuous energy demand.
Nora D. Volkow, MD, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse in Bethesda, Maryland Hands-free devices or speaker-phone mode should be used to avoid direct contact of the telephone with the head. Previous work suggests that if the phone is a foot or more away it is very unlikely to have any effects, she said.
Caution may be particularly necessary for children and adolescents whose neural tissue is still developing, Dr. Volkow noted.

Other studies have shown that the effects of radio frequency-modulated electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), particularly carcinogenic effects show some relationship between cell phones and the risk of brain tumor development.
Dr. Volkow’s studies over the past 15 years have shown:

  •  the the brain’s function is affected by brain imaging technologies, including PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) these magnetic fields affect brain glucose metabolism,
  •  static magnetic field of a 4-T MRI does not affect brain metabolism
  • when magnetic fields were changed rapidly, which produces electrical currents, there was a significant increase in glucose metabolism in the brain. They wondered whether the RF-EMFs produced by cell phones might do the same thing.

 metabolism in the regions closest to the antenna, the orbitofrontal cortex (the thinking and decision-making area of the  brain) and temporal pole (part of the temporal lobe). The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. was significantly higher when the cell phone was on.
Henry Lai, PhD, from the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD, from the Department of Oncology at University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden, point out that this is the first investigation in humans of glucose metabolism in the brain after cell phone use.
”The results by Volkow et al add to the concern about possible acute and long-term health effects of radiofrequency emissions from wireless phones, including both mobile and cordless desktop phones,” they write.
”Although the biological significance, if any, of increased glucose metabolism from acute cell phone exposure is unknown, the results warrant further investigation.
The effects are unlikely to be mediated by the substantial increase in temperature seen with cell phones given the activation was “quite distant” from where the cell phone made contact, they speculate. Further, since the subjects were only listening rather than talking on the phone, “the effect observed could thus potentially be more pronounced in normal-use situations.”
Another major concern is the effects of unmonitored cell phone towers that spider web across the US each one producing many thousands of times higher EMF’s radiation than a cell phone.
Excerpts courtesy of medscape.com   http://goo.gl/jIxeuhttp
Excerpts courtesy of  ajpregu.physiology.org  http://goo.gl/hEP9o
Excerpts courtesy of  acnp.org   http://goo.gl/VHvfP

Image  courtesy of quickblogcast.com  http://goo.gl/ZKjwv

“Ear traps and continues sound”

Maybe we actually can still hear that person hollering at us or that beautiful melody long after the sound of the voice or instruments are gone.

The some vibrations in the inner ear continue even after a sound has ended researchers have found. In the inner ear seems to serve as the mechanical memory of recent sounds. In addition to contributing to sound perception, auditory memory and understanding.

The inner ear contains a structure called the coiled cochlea, fluid filled structure that contains a “basilar” membrane and associated “hair cells” that serves as the organ of hearing.Sound entering the inner ear causes vibrations of the basilar (bottom ) membrane causing the hair cells to bend and vibrate which in turn convey auditory information to the nervous system.

Some hair cells respond to basilar membrane vibrations by producing forces that increase hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity through mechanisms that are not completely understood.
Dr. Alfred L. Nuttall from the Oregon Hearing Research Centersays his research shows that there is evidence that some tones produce vibrations that continue even after the end of the stimulus.

Using anesthetized guinea pigs, Dr. Nuttall and colleagues recorded basilar membrane motion and hair cell related potentials in response to various sounds. They observed that after-vibrations were dependent on the magnitude and frequency of the sound stimuli and that even minor hearing loss elicited a profound reduction in after-vibrations.

“The after-vibrations ( like an after shock from an earthquake-editor’s note) appear to be driven by sustained force production in the inner ear – a form of short-term memory of past stimulations,” says Dr. Nuttall.

“The ability to detect brief gaps in an ongoing stimulus is critical for speech recognition; gaps need to be longer than a minimal interval to be perceived,” explains Dr. Nutall. “To the extent that after-vibrations excite the auditory nerve fibers, they may explain part of the difficulty in detecting such gaps.” The study is published by Cell Press in Biophysical Journal.
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“O2 to the rescue”

Healing should be a simple noninvasive and natural process.

High Dose Of Oxygen Enhances Natural Cancer Treatment

A Petri dish with human cancer cells was placed in this high-pressure oxygen chamber for 48 hours. Source: Reimers Systems

An environment of pure oxygen at three-and-a-half times normal air pressure adds significantly to the effectiveness of a natural compound already shown to kill cancerous cells, researchers at the University of Washington and Washington State University recently reported in the journal Anticancer Research.

The compound artemisinin – isolated from Artemisia annua L, commonly known as wormwood – is a natural remedy widely used to treat malaria. In the mid-1990s UW researchers were the first to explore its ability to treat cancer.

In the new study, using artemisinin or high-pressure oxygen alone on a culture of human leukemia cells reduced the cancer cells’ growth by 15 percent. Using them in combination reduced the cells’ growth by 38 percent, a 50 percent increase in artemisinin’s effectiveness.(“Other natural substances like prickly pear concentrate has upwards of 100% kill in vitro – editor’s note)

“If you combine high-pressure oxygen with artemisinin you can get a much better curing effect,” said author Henry Lai, a UW research professor of bioengineering. “We only measured up to 48 hours. Over longer time periods we expect the synergistic effects to be even more dramatic.”

The history of artemisinin brings to mind an Indiana Jones story. In the early 1970s, Lai says, Chinese leader Mao Zedong issued an order to develop an anti-malarial treatment. At the same time, a farmer in central China discovered a 2,000-year-old tomb that contained three coffins.

One coffin contained a silk scroll describing various prescriptions, including artemisinin to treat malaria. The Chinese followed the directions and thus rediscovered an ancient remedy.

Today, artemisinin is widely used in Asia and Africa for malaria treatment.

In the decades since, scientists have discovered artemisinin reacts with iron within a cell to form a free radical, a highly reactive charged particle that destroys the cell. Because the malaria parasite is high in iron, artemisinin targets malaria-infected cells.

Since rapidly dividing cancer cells also need iron to form new DNA, Lai theorized they would also make targets for artemisinin. Subsequent research showed this to be the case.

Lai and colleagues at the UW developed a variant several thousand times more potent than natural artemisinin, which was licensed in 2004 to a Chinese company.

“Artemisinin is a promising low-cost cancer treatment because it’s specific, it’s cheap and you don’t have to inject it,” Lai said. “It’s 100 times more specific than traditional chemotherapy,” he added. “In breast cancer, it’s even better.”

Lai says he’s long hypothesized that high oxygen levels would enhance artemisinin’s effects, because oxygen promotes the formation of free radicals. In 2010, he put the theory to the test in a hyperbaric chamber that co-author Raymond Quock, WSU professor and chair of pharmaceutical sciences, has been using to study highly pressurized oxygen’s ability to relieve pain.

Hyperbaric chambers, filled with oxygen at high pressure, help scuba divers who surface too quickly gradually readjust to normal oxygen levels. A photo of pop singer Jackson in the mid-80s sleeping in a portable hyperbaric chamber sparked rumors that he was trying to heal scars from plastic surgery, retain his youthful appearance or extend his lifespan.

The photo turned out to be a publicity stunt, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved hyperbaric oxygen therapy for several ailments, including decompression sickness, carbon-monoxide poisoning, severe burns and slow-to-heal wounds.

In clinical practice, the artemisinin-hyperbaric study could lead to people or animals spending time in a hyperbaric chamber to enhance the artemisinin’s effectiveness.

Other co-authors are Yusuke Ohgami, Catherine Elstad and Eunhee Chung of WSU and Donald Shirachi of the Chico Hyperbaric Center. The research was funded by the Washington State University College of Pharmacy and the Chico Hyperbaric Center.

In related artemisinin work, funded through a $1.5 million grant from the state’s Life Sciences Discovery Fund to a team led by UW chemistry professor Tomikazu Sasaki:

UW researchers are developing synthetic artemisinin compounds with enhanced potency and anti-cancer selectivity, and WSU researchers are conducting a clinical trial evaluating these compounds’ ability to treat cancer in dogs. The molecular-engineered artemisinin compounds, which are stronger and more targeted than natural artemisinin but can still be taken by mouth, are licensed to Artemisia Biomedical of Newcastle, Wash.

WSU crop scientists are planting Artemisia annua in eastern Washington to test whether the region could plant artemisinin as a commercial crop.

Researchers are working with Northwest Organic Foods, a Washington chicken-feed company, to try adding artemisinin, instead of small amounts of arsenic, to chicken feed. Artemisinin acts as a natural preventative for avian coccidia infection, one of the poultry industry’s most costly parasitic diseases.


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“LOXL2 enzyme spreads cancer”

Did you know?
90 percent of cancer-related deaths occur because a tumor migrates around the patient’s body.
A key to unlock metatasis

The LOXL2 enzyme activity has been linked to the metastasis of a variety of different cancers, including breast, esophageal, colon, and squamous cell cancers.

Researchers analysis of breast cancer patients, found poor survival rates and the spread of some cancers  was linked to high levels of the LOXL2 enzyme. This enzyme  has been linked to the early stages of metastasis of these cancers into the bloodstream.

Around 47,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in the UK each year and around 12,000 die from the disease.

Recent studies have shown that the lifetime risk of the disease for women is now one in eight.

Experts blamed lifestyle factors, including obesity and drinking alcohol, for fuelling the rise.

Women are also more likely to have children later in life and fewer offspring, which influences the risk.

In the latest study, published in the journal Cancer Research, experts found that LOXL2 promotes the spread of breast cancer through the way it controls two proteins, TIMP1 and MMP9.

In the mice studies, antibodies and chemicals were used to block LOXL2 activity. This prevented breast cancer from metastasizing to other tissues.
These findings are important are an important role in developing a test to try and predict the possible spread of cancer and possible patient outcomes.
Director of Research and Policy at Breast Cancer Campaign, Arlene Wilkie, said, “by using LOXL2 to predict whose cancer will spread and drugs to block the enzyme to stop this from happening, many more lives could be saved.”

This laboratory research shows great promise and we look forward to seeing how it translates into patients.”


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