“Death by worms”

The hookworm, the whipworm and the spiral threadworm cause mortality and death  to one billionpeople across the globe

New parasitic worm discovery could help 1 billion people worldwide.
Scientists have discovered why some people may be protected from harmful parasitic worms naturally while others cannot in what could lead to new therapies for up to one billion people worldwide.
The University of Manchester researchers have, for the first time, identified

Mucin-5AC as a protein that in humans is encoded by the MUC5AC gene to be the key component of the mucus found in the guts of humans and animals is toxic to worms.

Dr Sumaira Hasnain, the lead researcher said “For the first time, we have discovered that a single component of the mucus barrier, the Muc5ac mucin, is essential for worm expulsion.
Learning who is and isn’t susceptible to parasitic worms can lead to new treatments for people with chronic worm infections.

How does Muc5ac mucin effect cells?

  • The abnormal expression of gastric M1/MUC5AC mucin in precancerous lesions and colon cancer.
  • Cigarette smoke when it enters lung tissue induces MUC5AC mucin overproduction via tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme in human airway epithelial (NCI-H292) cells.
  • During inflammation Nitric oxide (NO) is generally increased in airway diseases. This causes NO to increase the secretion of mucin from the goblet cell and submucosal glands.

“These parasitic worms live in the gut, which is protected by a thick layer of mucus,” explained Dr David Thornton, from the University’s Wellcome Trust Center for Cell Matrix Research. “The mucus barrier is not just slime, but a complex mixture of salts, water and large ‘sugar-coated’ proteins called mucins that give mucus its gel-like properties.

By creating more mucous study mice were able to expel this whipworm from the gut. Importantly, the mucus from these mice contained the mucin, Muc5ac. This mucin is rarely present in the gut, but when it is, it alters the physical properties of the mucus gel.
Mice unable to genetically produce Muc5ac were unable to expel the worms, despite having a strong immune response against these parasites. This resulted in long-term infections.

Muc5ac is also essential for the efficient expulsion from the gut like hookworm, and the spiral threadworm. Together, these worms cause mortality and morbidity in up to one billion people across the globe.
Excerpts and Image 2. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/kj9cXm
Image 1. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/kuLDE5

“Fighting for quality school eats”

Concerned about the obesity of our children, the battle starts here, in their school’s cafeteria.

If you’ve been wondering where Season 2 of the Food Revolution had gone on ABC do not fear the show is taking a short break following the recent positive events in the Food Revolution in L.A .

Looking forward to seeing the superintendent of the LAUSD offering to recommend to the board the removal of flavored milk from schools and agreeing to work with Jamie.

All new episodes beginning Friday, June 3rd at 9pm ET/8pm CT.

If you’ve missed either of the first two episodes, they will be airing back-to-back on Friday May 27th at 8:00 and 9:00 pm ET (7 and 8 CT) or you can watch them on www.abc.com !

You can get involved with the Food Revolution below.

Sign Jamie’s petition! We want to reach 1 million. If you’ve already signed ask all of you friends and family to do so as well. Signing up to our newsletters is also a great way to stay informed on all things Food Revolution and receive a roundup of the latest news each week, just fill in the ‘Stay in the loop’ box on the website.

• Join the Food Revolution Community on Facebook for the latest news, actions, announcements and recipe of the week. We want you to download the recipe of the week, cook it and post a picture of your creation on the community wall. This week it’s the delicious Caesar on the Lighter Side, you have until the end of Tuesday each week to post your photo. We’ll be posting our team photo each Friday so check out the Community page for this. We’ll be picking the best ones and featuring them in our weekly newsletter and on the website.

• Check out our Activists map to find a local group in your area to connect with and join their Facebook page. If there isn’t one locally submit a request to create a group and become a local leader. All leaders receive a handy Welcome Toolkit to get them started and all groups receive messages from Jamie and the team, we want you to succeed in your local campaign and will be keeping track of the great work already going on.

• Our Sugary Milk Campaign already has over 48,000 signers, to sign up and find out more about the campaign and milk in schools click here and read about the success in LA so far here.

• Join our weekly Competwitions and Twitter parties on Tuesdays and Wednesdays where the community gets together to talk recipes, school food, cooking, gardening and the Food Revolution campaign. Read some of the conversation from this week’s party and competwition – including this week’s winner!

The Food Revolution Team

Season 2 EP1&2 airing May 27 on ABC 8/7c then weekly on Fridays 9/8c from June 3.

Article courtesy of  www.jamiesfoodrevolution.com

Image courtesy of http://bit.ly/lfKvZA

“Mushrooms say oil spills be gone!”

Researcher Paul Stamets says mushrooms can eat oil spills and rid the world of toxins.

For more than a decade, mycologist, inventor and researchers Paul Stamets has known

that mushrooms eat oil. Now he has to learn how to do it on a larger scale and get the US government’s blessing.

After the Deep Water Horizon explosions last year, the EPA contacted him several times to request a proposal. They wanted to understand how mycoremediation—the reduction of toxic compounds into harmless ones by fungi—could work as a component of their cleanup strategy for the spill.

Stamets calls fungi the “interface organisms between life and death” because they specialize in breaking indigestible substances down into smaller particles that other living things can use as nutrients.

In fact, polishing the public image of fungus may be more important for Stamets than any decision to bring mushrooms to the Gulf spill. This is because he sees human partnership with fungi as essential to the broader project of creating a sustainable society. Like most other environmentalists, Stamets believes our society is hurting the earth and that the consequences of this damage will be severe. But he differs from the others in his conviction that fungi are the key to repairing that damage, healing the planet and accepting decay as part of nature as well.

Stamets calls fungi the “interface organisms between life and death” because their mic specialize in breaking indigestible substances down into smaller particles that other living things can use as nutrients. It is this ability to digest complex organic compounds that makes fungi so promising for cleaning up oil.

 

Stamets first tested the fungal appetite for oil in 1997, when he teamed up with researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide fungi for several lab-based experiments. The team selected mycelial strains and set them loose on diesel-contaminated soil.

After eight weeks, they found that the fungi had removed 97 percent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—heavy chemicals within oil that other forms of remediation had consistently failed to break down.

The next year Washington State Department of Transportation joined with Stamets and the Battelle Marine Science Laboratory to research the most effective bio-safenmethods for cleaning up a maintenance yard contaminated with diesel fuel. Workers scooped piles of the toxic soil onto tarps, and each of several piles were inoculated with, either with a form of oil-eating bacteria or with Stamets’  oyster-mushroom mycelia and wood chips mix.

There were also several control patches of soil.

Results showed that his patches were teeming with huge oyster mushrooms feasting happily on the diesel compounds while destroying more than 95 percent of the PAHs and the mushrooms were also free of any petroleum products. The control and the bacteria patches, were dead, dark, and stinky and the diesel compounds remained.

Because the contamination in the soil patches was very uneven,  it was difficult to measure the precise concentration of contaminants both before and after remediation. However, researchers at the Department of Transportation eventually declared the fungi-cleansed soil pure enough to use for landscaping purposes along the highways of Washington. And in the years since, Stamets’s findings have been replicated by many other researchers, and further study has shown that various types of fungi are able to partially or fully detoxify oil and pesticides.  T^he fungi have also been successful at breaking down depleted uranium from anti-tank shells by allowing it to bond with phosphates to form a more stable mineral.

Since the Deepwater Horizon spill in April 2010, Stamets has been testing his oyster mushrooms for tolerance to salt water and sun in preparation for a gig off the coast of Texas or Louisiana. So far, he’s managed to isolate a strain that can tolerate the salinity of Puget Sound, which is only slightly less than that of the Gulf. And he’s found ways to float the mushrooms cheaply on hemp “mycobooms” filled with straw and mycelia from which the mushrooms can metabolize oil on the surface of the sea.

Stamets has discovered is that the enzymes and acids that mycelium produces to decompose this debris are superb at breaking apart hydrocarbons – the base structure common to many pollutants. So, for instance, when diesel oil-contaminated soil is inoculated with strains of oyster mycelia, the soil loses its toxicity in just eight weeks

Creative solutions under pressure

Stamets says this new research is “very cool and unlikely to have been discovered if it were not for this disaster.” He believes it will be used in the near future and has applied for a provisional patent to prevent oil companies from stealing the research.

(Most likely the oil companies would not want to spend their profits on solutions, but maybe you could try using mushrooms to clean up any small oil soil caused by your car  or truck..- Editor’s note)

Stamets says he would be happy to share it for free

with affected communities in the Gulf of Mexico.

Six ways mushrooms can save the world.

Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/lLQtR2

Image courtesy of  http://bit.ly/m7U7s3

“A recipe for a quality life”

It is about Quality in
buying food, preparation, companions,work and service = quality life

75 per cent of Americans are focused on eating more whole grains

What is a whole grain?
A whole grain is a grain unprocessed and straight from Mother Nature.
They include: amaranth, barley, brown rice, bulgar wheat, couscous, millet, oatmeal, popcorn (seed), quinoa, sorghum and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat whole oats, whole rye, wild rice (a blend of seeds) and whole wheat.

To be a whole grain it must still contain the bran and germ, when it is processed the brain and germ are removed, leaving behind the white endosperm. This causes many nutrients to be left behind.
To try to make up for the bleeding of nutrients through processing, companies will throw in a sprinkle of vitamins and call their product “enriched”. There is nothing enriching about this scam. 25% of their original protein content and 17 other essential nutrients are usually lost.

Whole grain breads pack more protein, fiber, vitamins (B vitamins and vitamin E), and minerals (magnesium and iron), as well as some antioxidants not found in junk foods.

The U.S. government recommends that half of your daily grains servings should be whole grains. That’s at least three servings of whole grains per day.

Even desserts can be made more nutritious using whole grains and a natural sugar.

Help Finding whole grain products

Until recently, finding whole grain products was difficult. Is this product whole grain, or simply refined flour with caramel coloring? Does 100% wheat mean it’s whole grain? What does multigrain really mean?
Help from the whole grains council
The Whole Grains Council is helping consumers to find and eat more whole grains
Look for the Whole Grain Stamp, a special packaging symbol now on hundreds and hundreds of popular products. Check out the list of “Stamped Products” here on our website.
At Restaurants, using our list of food outlets that offer at least one whole grain choice at every meal.
For Foodservice, using our new foodservice list. If you run a restaurant or cafeteria, you need to know where you can buy bulk containers of whole grains – not the usual consumer-size products. We can help.

It is about Quality in
buying food, preparation, companions,work and service = quality life

Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/kc3eEY

Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/kwtfW6

Image courtesy of  http://bit.ly/lbiS1e

“Optimum vitamin D level above 50 ng/ml”

Make it or take it vitamin D level over 50 ng/ml

Professor Hollis is the scientist who provided the best reason to keep your vitamin D level around 50 ng/ml.  Some scientists say 20 ng/ml is good enough because parathyroid hormone (PTH) is pretty much suppressed with levels of 20, other scientists say levels should be 30 because calcium absorption is maximized with that level.  That is, PTH suppression and calcium absorption are biomarkers for adequate vitamin D blood levels.

Professor Hollis provided another biomarker, one every woman – and most men – can immediately accept as the best biomarker yet: how much vitamin D does a woman need to be sure that her breast milk has adequate vitamin D?  When you think about it, that’s about as good as biomarkers get.

Professor Hollis answered that question in his research, finding that when a lactating woman has vitamin D blood levels of 40-50 ng/ml, her breast milk finally has enough vitamin D to support the vitamin D levels of her nursing infant. At levels below 40, the vitamin D content of breast milk becomes unpredictable.  Human breast milk – unlike the breast milk of wild mammals – has little or no vitamin D.  Nature’s most perfect food is too often void of the pre-hormone needed for infant growth and development.

Dr. Bruce found that breast milk is not void of it, it is just that virtually all modern lactating women are void of it.

There is a 25-hydroxyvitamin D test, also called a 25(OH)D. Levels should be above 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L) year-round, in both children and adults. Thanks to Bruce Hollis, Robert Heaney, Neil Binkley, and others, we now know the minimal acceptable level. It is 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L). In a recent study, Heaney, et al expanded on Bruce Hollis’s seminal work by analyzing five studies in which both the parent compound (cholecalciferol) and 25(OH)D levels were measured. They found that the body does not reliably begin storing cholecalciferol in fat and muscle tissue until 25(OH)D levels get above 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L). The average person starts to store cholecalciferol at 40 ng/ml (100 nmol/L), but at 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L) virtually everyone begins to store it for future use.

At levels below 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L), the body uses up vitamin D as fast as you can make it, or take it, indicating chronic substrate starvation—not a good thing. 25(OH)D levels should be between 50–80 ng/ml (125–200 nmol/L), year-round.

Two forms of Vitamin D are important in humans: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Vitamin D2 is synthesized by plants. Vitamin D3 is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Foods may be fortified with vitamin D2 or D3.Vitamin
Other ways Vitamin D is needed in the body

  • maintains normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.
  • aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and maintain strong bones.
  • protection from osteoporosis, hypertension (high blood pressure), cancer, and several autoimmune diseases.
  • calcium absorption which your bones need to grow.
  • needed for nerve, muscle, and immune systems function.

Excerpts courtesy of John Cannell, MD/Vitamin D Council  http://bit.ly/kAGVcX

Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/kcNiCV

Image 1. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/kcNiCV

Image 2. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/m7ae5K

 

“Dementia linked to overweight”

Being overweight or obese in midlife and beyond increases the risk for dementia even if there is no history of diabetes and vascular disease.

With 1.6 billion adults around the world being overweight, controlling body weight can help prevent dementia in seniors, the researchers say.

Recent research has shown a link “between midlife obesity and dementia, but for overweight, the association has been controversial,” said lead author Weili L. Xu, MD, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in the Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. “But from this twin study, we demonstrated that both overweight and obesity increases the risk of dementia in later life.”

The study was published in the May 3 issue of Neurology.

The research study used data from the nationwide Swedish Twin Registry between the years 1998 and 2001. The twins in this registry were age 65 years and older. 13,723 twins completed cognitive screening tests and 8534 were included in this study.

The protocol included a neuropsychological assessment, including the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Researchers calculated body mass index (BMI) at midlife (mean age, 43.4 years) using self-reported weight in kilograms divided by self-reported height in meters squared and categorized BMI into 4 groups: underweight (BMI < 20), normal weight (20-25), overweight (26-30), and obese (>30).

Dementia was diagnosed in 350 of the 8534 participants (4.1%), including 232 with Alzheimer’s disease and 74 with vascular dementia; 114 (1.3%) had what was considered questionable dementia.

Compared with those without dementia, twins with confirmed or questionable dementia were older; had lower levels of education and current BMI; and were more likely to have diabetes, stroke, and heart disease.

The study showed a strong link between dementia and midlife BMI. In the model adjusted for age, sex, education, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, and heart disease, both overweight and obesity at midlife were associated with increased dementia risk compared with normal BMI.

In this study, 29.8% (2541) of the twins were overweight or obese at midlife, a percentage much lower than the over 50% who are currently considered overweight or obese in the United States and Europe. This, said Dr. Xu, is because the data are from 30 years ago, before the global obesity epidemic.

Dementia-Discordant Twins

In a matched case-control analysis of 137 dementia-discordant twin pairs a high BMI equaled a higher rate of dementia.

Because twins share the same genes and early life environment, these 2 factors might help explain the link between body weight and dementia, said Dr. Xu.

In the case of only 1 twin developing dementia, that sibling might have been exposed to a trigger in early life that turned on a gene that increased the risk for obesity or dementia, she added. Dr. Xu and her colleagues have shown that the FTO gene, for example, is associated with both obesity and Alzheimer’s disease.

In addition to the contribution of genes, the link between body fat and dementia could involve a vascular pathway, said Dr. Xu. “High body fat is associated with diabetes and vascular disease, which in turn are related to dementia risk.” However, this study controlled for lifespan vascular disease, suggesting that the pathway may be nonvascular.

If that’s the case, the pathway may involve metabolism. High adiposity is associated with an altered metabolic status, including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and high blood pressure. This can contribute to the metabolic syndrome, which other studies have linked to cognitive decline, said Dr. Xu.

Or, the association could also involve a hormonal pathway or inflammation, said Dr. Xu. “Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ and it secretes inflammatory cytokines and growth hormones such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, and also leptin, which is associated with obesity.”

Whatever the mechanism, the important message is that overweight and obese people need to lose weight. Dr. Xu emphasized that even though the study looked at midlife body weight, “it’s never too late” to shed excess pounds.

She added that physical activity can reverse the risk for dementia due to obesity. “This is part of our ongoing study, but preliminary results already show that if you do more physical activity, you can reduce your risk of dementia.”

John Hart, MD, professor of neurology, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, and member of the American Academy of Neurology, emphasized that the study shows correlation between obesity and dementia and does not prove cause and effect.

As for the contribution of environmental factors, Dr. Hart agreed that twins share genes, but they don’t necessarily share the same experiences that might trigger a genetic reaction. For example, one twin may have had a severe infection or a head injury that the other twin didn’t.

This is just one more wake up call to stay fit and eat right.

Resources

Excerpts courtesy of http://bit.ly/jMOFVc

Image courtesy of   http://bit.ly/jwm4lE

“Tai Chi for heart health n office relaxation”

This gentle, graceful movement form packs serious health benefits for all ages that practice Tai chi daily. It has recently been in the news for its help at improving heart heart and for stress reduction.

Many of these exercises can be done sitting at your office desk as well or in a straight back chair at home.

Take 5 minutes  to watch and relax with Tai Chi

“Tai Chi appears to be a safe alternative to low-to-moderate intensity conventional exercise training,” for people with Chronic Heart Failure (CHD)  said Gloria Yeh of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center head of the study team . CHD is a debilitating and progressive disease that limits a person’s ability to breathe and move.

People with chronic heart failure may be able to boost their quality of life by doing Tai Chi, the ancient Chinese exercise regimen that teaches each person control of their body, mind and emotional energy through gentle deliberate quiet motions.

Take 5 minutes  to watch and relax with Tai Chi
Archives of Internal Medicine, a journal of the American Medical Association reported that the study was divided into two group sessions of one hour each per week were enough to show significant improvements in mood and confidence.
50 US heart patients were enrolled in Tai Chi program study led by an instructor who guided the class in a series of fluid motions and 50 others who took classroom study in heart education.

Physical responses were similar in both groups, but those who did tai chi showed “significant” improvements in their emotional state response questionaire. The Tai Chi group also reported better “exercise self-efficacy (confidence to perform certain exercise-related activities), with increased daily activity, and related feelings of well-being compared with the education group,” said the study.
“Tai Chi seems to be a safe alternative to low-to-moderate intensity conventional exercise training, It has a good rate of adherence and may provide value in improving daily exercise, quality of life, self-efficacy and mood in frail, deconditioned patients with systolic heart failure,” said Yeh.

Previous studies have suggested Tai Chi, which involves slow, circular movements and balance-shifting exercises, may be helpful to people who suffer from high blood pressure, fibromyalgia and stress. All ages and ability levels can benefit by daily Tai Chi practice.

Take 5 minutes  to watch and relax with Tai Chi
Resources

Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/ibFtcb

Video courtesy of  http://bit.ly/i1f4Cs

Image courtesy of   http://bit.ly/jqkjjZ

 

“2010 most prescribed and purchased drugs”

The 10 most prescribed drugs in the U.S. aren’t the drugs on which we spend the most, according to a report from the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics.
The institute is the public face of IMS, a pharmaceutical market intelligence firm. Its latest report provides a wealth of data on U.S. prescription drug use.
Continuing a major trend, IMS finds that 78% of the nearly 4 billion U.S. prescriptions written in 2010 were for generic drugs (both unbranded and those still sold under a brand name). In order of number of prescriptions written in 2010, the 10 most-prescribed drugs in the U.S. are:

  • Hydrocodone (combined with acetaminophen) — 131.2 million prescriptions
  • Generic Zocor (simvastatin), a cholesterol-lowering statin drug — 94.1 million prescriptions
  • Lisinopril (brand names include Prinivil and Zestril), a blood pressure drug — 87.4 million prescriptions
  • Generic Synthroid (levothyroxine sodium), synthetic thyroid hormone — 70.5 million prescriptions
  • Generic Norvasc (amlodipine besylate), an angina/blood pressure drug — 57.2 million prescriptions
  • Generic Prilosec (omeprazole), an antacid drug — 53.4 million prescriptions (does not include over-the-counter sales)
  • Azithromycin (brand names include Z-Pak and Zithromax), an antibiotic — 52.6 million prescriptions
  • Amoxicillin (various brand names), an antibiotic — 52.3 million prescriptions
  • Generic Glucophage (metformin), a diabetes drug — 48.3 million prescriptions
  • Hydrochlorothiazide (various brand names), a water pill used to lower blood pressure — 47.8 million prescriptions.
The 10 Best-Selling Drugs
However, these generic drugs are not create the hugh dollars for pharmaceutical companies. The drugs that are still protected by patent create the fortunes companies grow on.
The IMS reports that Americans spent $307 billion on prescription drugs in 2010.
The 10 drugs on which we spent the most were:
  1. Lipitor, a cholesterol-lowering statin drug — $7.2 billion
  2. Nexium, an antacid drug — $6.3 billion
  3. Plavix, a blood thinner — $6.1 billion
  4. Advair Diskus, an asthma inhaler — $4.7 billion
  5. Abilify, an antipsychotic drug — $4.6 billion
  6. Seroquel, an antipsychotic drug — $4.4 billion
  7. Singulair, an oral asthma drug — $4.1 billion
  8. Crestor, a cholesterol-lowering statin drug — $3.8 billion
  9. Actos, a diabetes drug — $3.5 billion
  10. Epogen, an injectable anemia drug — $3.3 billion
Who’s paying for all these drugs?
Commercial insurance helped pay for 63% of prescriptions, down from 66% five years ago. Federal government spending through Medicare Part D covered 22% of prescriptions.
For Americans covered by insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid, the average co-payment for a prescription was $10.73 — down a bit from 2009 due to increased use of generic drugs. The average co-payment for branded drugs for which generic alternatives were available jumped 6% to $22.73.
In 2010
Doctor visits were down 4.2% since 2009.
Patients filled more than half of their prescriptions — 54% — at chain drugstores, possibly because of discounts on generic drugs.
Brands that lost their protection from generic competition led to $12.6 billion less spending in 2010 than in 2009.
The price increase for drugs without generic competition led to $16.6 billion more spending in 2010 than in 2009.
Drug companies offered $4.5 billion in rebates to assist patients with the high cost of brand name drugs for which there was no generic alternative.
SOURCE:
A courtesy of WebMD  Health News   http://bit.ly/ljqG1n 

 


“Ear traps and continues sound”

Maybe we actually can still hear that person hollering at us or that beautiful melody long after the sound of the voice or instruments are gone.

The some vibrations in the inner ear continue even after a sound has ended researchers have found. In the inner ear seems to serve as the mechanical memory of recent sounds. In addition to contributing to sound perception, auditory memory and understanding.

The inner ear contains a structure called the coiled cochlea, fluid filled structure that contains a “basilar” membrane and associated “hair cells” that serves as the organ of hearing.Sound entering the inner ear causes vibrations of the basilar (bottom ) membrane causing the hair cells to bend and vibrate which in turn convey auditory information to the nervous system.

Some hair cells respond to basilar membrane vibrations by producing forces that increase hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity through mechanisms that are not completely understood.
Dr. Alfred L. Nuttall from the Oregon Hearing Research Centersays his research shows that there is evidence that some tones produce vibrations that continue even after the end of the stimulus.

Using anesthetized guinea pigs, Dr. Nuttall and colleagues recorded basilar membrane motion and hair cell related potentials in response to various sounds. They observed that after-vibrations were dependent on the magnitude and frequency of the sound stimuli and that even minor hearing loss elicited a profound reduction in after-vibrations.

“The after-vibrations ( like an after shock from an earthquake-editor’s note) appear to be driven by sustained force production in the inner ear – a form of short-term memory of past stimulations,” says Dr. Nuttall.

“The ability to detect brief gaps in an ongoing stimulus is critical for speech recognition; gaps need to be longer than a minimal interval to be perceived,” explains Dr. Nutall. “To the extent that after-vibrations excite the auditory nerve fibers, they may explain part of the difficulty in detecting such gaps.” The study is published by Cell Press in Biophysical Journal.
Article courtesy of  http://bit.ly/fUcvnk

Image 1. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/eILAs7

Image 2. courtesy of  http://bit.ly/g5fXWg

“DNR orders vs surgery survival?”

Dr. Saziana Roman,, a surgeon at the Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, and his team analyzed patient databases from more than 120 hospitals across the U.S for how patients fared after surgery. To their surprise they found that about 4,000 patients that had signed the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders did worse after surgery than those that had not signed the agreement.
Results:
1/4 of the DNR patients died in the month following their surgery.
3 times as many as in the comparison group.

  • DNR patients are usually sicker
  • DNR patients also had slightly more complications, such as pneumonia or stroke.

The outcomes depended on the type of surgery.
1/2 of the DNR patients having an exploratory laparotomy(abdominal surgery) died within one month of the surgery, –  one in five of the patients without the order.

“We can now say ‘look, you have a really high chance of dying, do you even want to go through this?'” Roman told Reuters Health, adding that the patient might prefer pain medication such as morphine to surgery.
For thighbone fracture repair or appendectomies, on the other hand, there was no difference between the two patient groups.

Excerpts courtesy of  http://reut.rs/edL3qb

Sample of DNR form

The Prehospital Medical Care Directive form (commonly known as the Do Not Resuscitate or DNR form) is authorized by A.R.S. § 36-3251. The DNR form allows an individual to indicate that he or she does not want to be resuscitated if he or she suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest. The form allows an individual to declare that the following resuscitative measures are not to be used: cardiac compression, endotracheal intubation and other advanced airway management, artificial ventilation, defibrillation, administration of advanced cardiac life support drugs and related emergency medical procedures. The DNR form does not authorize the withholding of other medical interventions, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen, or other therapies deemed necessary to provide comfort care or to alleviate pain.

Emergency medical system and hospital emergency department personnel who make a good faith effort to identify the patient and who rely on an apparently genuine DNR form or photocopy of a DNR form on orange paper are immune from liability to the same extent and under the same conditions as prescribed in A.R.S. § 36-3205. If a person has any doubt as to the validity of a DNR form or the medical situation, that person shall proceed with resuscitative efforts as otherwise required by law. Emergency medical system personnel are not required to accept or interpret medical care directives that do not meet the requirements of A.R.S. § 36-3251.

Specifications regarding the DNR form:

  • The DNR form must be printed on an orange background and may be in either letter or wallet size.
  • The DNR form must include the wording mandated by A.R.S. § 36-3251.
  • A person who has a valid DNR form may wear an identifying bracelet on either the wrist or ankle. The bracelet must:
    • Be substantially similar to identification bracelets worn in hospitals;
    • Be on an orange background; and
    • State in bold type:
      • Do Not Resuscitate,
      • Patient’s name, and
      • Patient’s physician.

Free copies of the DNR form may be requested by calling the Bureau of Emergency Medical Services at (602) 364-3150 or via email. To print a free copy of the form, click below. The links below are available in PDF or Word format. In order to download the PDF version, Acrobat Reader™ is required. Please remember that the law requires that the form be on orange paper.
• Letter-size version of the DNR form [PDF 52K] [DOC 22K]
• Wallet-size version of the DNR form [PDF 56K] [DOC 22K]

Resource courtesy of  http://1.usa.gov/gyXg2q