“What creates the jolt in energy drinks?”

Energy drinks boost energy by using caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal supplements, sugar and sweeteners . Other lessen known ingredients in these drinks include gum arabic, pyridoxine hydrochloride, Inositol and Cyanocobalamin and about 16 other chemicals.
Only 80 mg to 215 mg per can  are Caffeine in comparison to a 12-ounce Pike Place Roast Starbucks Coffee weighing in with 260 mg.

One study found that 30-50 percent of adolescents and young adults regularly drink energy drinks.  Are these drinks encouraging are young people to become addicted to the “jolt” rather than building quality adrenal energy?

Stick to quality water to boost energy and mental clarity,
Cited huntingtonpost.com

 

“Addiction related to brain wiring”

Scientists pinpoint the brain circuitry linked to making healthy or unhealthy choices

(Medical Xpress) — What drives addicts to repeatedly choose drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, overeating, gambling or kleptomania, despite the risks involved?
Drug Dependence Quiz – Identify substance abuse problems Confidential, free online survey – TurnToHelp.com

Neuroscientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have pinpointed the exact locations in the brain where calculations are made that can result in addictive and compulsive behavior.

UC Berkeley researchers have found how neural activity in the brain’s orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex regulates our choices. These astonishing new findings could pave the way for more targeted treatments for everything from drug and alcohol abuse to obsessive-compulsive disorders.

‘The better we understand our decision-making brain circuitry, the better we can target treatment, whether it’s pharmaceutical, behavioral or deep brain stimulation,” said Jonathan Wallis, associate professor of psychology and neuroscience at UC Berkeley and the principal investigator of the study to be published in the Oct. 30 online issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience.

Wallis was inspired to look into the brain mechanism behind substance abuse when he observed the lengths to which addicts will go to fulfill their cravings, despite the downside of their habit: He asked, “What has the drug done to their brains that makes it so difficult for them not to make that choice? What is preventing them from making the healthier choice?”

In the new study, he and fellow researchers targeted the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex –- two areas in the frontal brain — because previous research has shown that patients with damage to these areas of the brain are impaired in the choices they make. While these individuals may appear perfectly normal on the surface, they routinely make decisions that create chaos in their lives. A similar dynamic has been observed in chronic drug addicts, alcoholics and people with obsessive-compulsive tendencies.”

‘Secondhand smoke +early childhood illness”

Homes where children under 12 are exposed to secondhand smoke show an 50% increase in many neurobehavioral and learning and breathing disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and conduct disorders.
If you must smoke do not do it around your children.

Many childhood diseases are linked to second-hand smoke exposure and smoking in the home, so a smoke-free home has major protective advantages against childhood diseases.

  • Respiratory problems
  • an increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome,
  • acute respiratory infections,
  • more frequent and more severe asthma attacks.

In 2007, about 5.5 million of US children lived in households where someone smoked inside the home.

The National Survey of Children’s Health analyzed 55,358 children younger than 12 years of age. The study was done conducted between April 2007 and July 2008. It found 6% of the children across the US (4.8 million ) younger than 12 years were exposed to secondhand smoke in the home.
Of these children, 8.2% had learning disabilities, 5.9% had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and 3.6% had behavioral and conduct disorders.
The Risks

Boys had a significantly higher risk, and older children aged 9 to 11 years and those living in households with the highest poverty levels were at greater risk.

Excerpts courtesy of Pediatrics

Excerpts courtesy of Medscape.com

Image courtesy of  http://goo.gl/lM4Cd

“Loosening the bond of coke addiction”

A new cocaine vaccine is being tested in clinical trials. It block dopamine-transport receptors and the “high” it causes. “high.”
The vaccine consists of molecules of cocaine covalently bonded to a large carrier protein, a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. The cholera subunit is harmless without the other part of the normal virulent cholera A subunit.
This carrier was chosen because that a cholera subunit vaccine has been administered to millions of people without any adverse effects,

Since Americans are rarely exposed to or even vaccinated against cholera, their immune defense system will probably launch a strong defense against this foreignthis protein and the attached cocaine molecule.

The carrier choice was dictated by the knowledge that a cholera vaccine made from this subunit has been administered to millions of people without any adverse effects, and by the fact that Americans are rarely exposed to or vaccinated against cholera, so most would likely mount a new and robust immune response to this protein and the attached cocaine molecule.

After intramuscular injection, the vaccine enters the bloodstream and triggers plasma cells to produce antibodies to the cocaine molecule as a component of the immunogenic cholera protein. This creates an army of antibodies that can latch onto free cocaine molecules in the bloodstream and, because they are too bulky to fit through tight junctions in blood vessels, prevent the drug from leaving the circulatory system and entering tissues and organs.

Since tiny cocaine molecules that are now bound to big antibodies can no longer cross the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where they would ordinarily block dopamine-transport receptors and cause the buildup of dopamine that users perceive as a “high.” Cocaine that is kept from reaching its “target” in the brain is prevented from triggering reward sensations. With continued, regular booster vaccinations, necessary because the antibody titer declines steeply about 3 months after reaching peak levels, the bonds of addiction may be loosened, giving addicts a stab at kicking their habit altogether.

Resources
Excerpts courtesy of  http://bit.ly/iP62jc

Image courtesy of  http://bit.ly/lQAu3w